2.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter includes the learning the Last planner process by literature search.

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2.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter includes the learning the Last planner process by literature search. There is explanation of the terms used in last planner as well as research done by different researcher is analysed in this chapter. First of all this study is focused on wastages in construction projects after that to minimize those wastage last planner system implemen-tation is understood by various research papers.
2.2 WASTAGES IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
Construction projects are complex and unique projects. Delays, wastages and cost overruns are among the challenges faced in the course of executing construction projects. According to Forbes et al. (2004), up to 30% of construction cost overrun are due low ef-ficiencies, time overrun and
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5 Defects Product which does not satisfy the quality requirements leads to defect.
6 Unused employee creativity It contains Lose of time, thoughts, skills, and learning oppor-tunities by underestimating to your workers.
7 Excess inventory Inventory management is the main issue of the wastage. if system is carrying more inventory than required; it causes damages of the material due to mishandling or expiry of ma-terial date.
8 Overproduction This type of waste infers to process that should be finished because the need of work has been fulfilled.. This type does include product amounts made in excess, as well as things produced too early.

Dominance of any of the above waste can be differ from project to project or place to place, so now a days waste has become hot topic of researcher .For identification wastages causes root analysis is a tool proposed by Ishikawa.

Root Cause Analysis
Root and cause analysis is a widely famous tool to identify the cause of any activity and effect of that cause. This tool is also known as cause-and-effect diagram or Fishbone diagram or Ishikawa diagram. It shows casual relationships by conforming quality charac-teristic or effect at the head of the diagram and then listing probable causes along branch arrows (Capper, 1998).These effects or causes are commonly divided into seven different categories (See Table 5) that Bergman and
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