2.3.2 Biochemical characterization Biochemical characterization has been shown to give discrete

1000 WordsApr 23, 20194 Pages
2.3.2 Biochemical characterization Biochemical characterization has been shown to give discrete differences among plant genotypes within short period of time and can be successfully utilized efficiently for characterization, documentation and identification of crop landraces. This type of characterization involves use of biochemical markers which include principally isozymes (metabolic enzymes) and seed proteins which are non-enzymatic proteins (Anderson and McDonald, 1983). The major advantage of biochemical markers is their presumed selective neutrality. This general neutrality allows breeders to distinguish those similarities that are due to common ancestry (Gepts, 1993). Simpson and Withers (1986) in agreement with Gepts (1993) added…show more content…
This in turn helps in selection of diverse parents for crop improvement programs. DNA markers are used for in the evaluation of genetic variation in gene banks and also for the identification of phylogenetic structure of crops and their associated wild species. Another useful role played by genetic characterization is associated with the development of conservation strategies such as identification of off-types or mismatches in rationalising ex situ germplasm collections. Additionally, certification of varieties can be achieved through the use of DNA markers (Villa et al., 2005). The advantages of DNA based markers are that they are selectively neutral, abundant and have a wide coverage in the genome of all species. DNA based markers have been widely used in genetic studies of various crop plants that include cat’s whiskers (Kafesu, 2012) and tobacco (Mwadzingeni et al., 2013). Several DNA-based techniques can be used for characterization and these include simple sequence repeats (SSR), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) (Villa et al., 2005). These techniques are all fairly effective. Their choice depends on the stage of research into

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