Essay about 2301 Final Exam Workbook 2

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Objective 1.1

Define psychology.

Key Terms

Psychology- scientific study of behavior and mental processes


1. Put a check mark by each statement that is true regarding psychology.
_√____ Psychologists study human behavior.
_√____ Psychologists study animal behavior.
_ √___ Psychologists study emotions and mental processes.
_____ Psychology and "common sense" lead to the same conclusions about behavior and mental processes.
_____ Psychology is not a science.

Objective 1.2

Define the scientific method, and explain how it is used in psychology.

Key Terms

scientific method


1. What is the main purpose of the scientific method?

2. The steps of the scientific method are (1)
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2. Each bag of M&Ms has candies of several colors. Thus, the three red M&Ms that Barry took out of his bag (are/are not) a representative sample.

3. Why are researchers concerned about the representativeness of the samples in their studies?
a. They don't want to offend anyone.
b. They hope to generalize the findings of their studies to populations of interest.
c. Representative samples are usually large enough to ensure statistical significance.
d. Scientific journals will not publish a study unless the sample is representative.

Objective 1.6

Describe the experimental method, state its advantages and disadvantages, and distinguish between independent and dependent variables.

Key Terms

experimental method causal hypothesis independent variable dependent variable experimental group control group random assignment


1. What is the primary advantage of the experimental method?

2. Read the scenario and answer the questions that follow it.

In a laboratory study of sleep deprivation, researchers employed a variety of techniques to keep volunteers awake for variable amounts of time. One group of participants was kept awake for 24 hours, and the other was kept awake for 48 hours. During periods of forced wakefulness, participants were required to engage verbal learning tasks such as memorizing the definitions of obscure English words. At the conclusion of the period of forced wakefulness, participants were allowed to sleep for as

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