3.Generation Reliability Analysis. Generation System Reliability

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3. Generation Reliability analysis
Generation system reliability deals with the relative ability of the system to supply system load considering that generation units may be out of service when needed due to planned or unplanned outages or that the basic energy sources may be inadequate.

Generation system reliability, also known as generation system adequacy, is to be contrasted with security which deals with the relative ability of the system to survive sudden shocks or upset such as faults or equipment failures without cascading failures or loss of stability.
Mathematically, reliability is the probability that a device would perform its required function for a specified period of time under the stated operational conditions. The
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The generation capacity is the sum of the power that can be produces by all generator units that are available to produce electrical energy. These units do not have to be operational but they should have the potential to be operational.[9]
Generator units may be unavailable due to failures, this is called forced unavailability”,or due to preventive maintenance, this is called planned unavailability”. Both types of unavailability may be treated stochastically, but the planned unavailability is often treated deterministically.

The uncertainty in the generation capacity is then only due to failures (outages) of generator units [9]. Generating units will occasionally fail to operate and the system operator has to make sure that enough reserve is available to be operated when this situation happens, as will be discussed in the following subsection.

352.3 Generation Reserves

Improvements in system reliability can be achieved by using better components or incorporating redundancy. Generation redundancy is attained by providing generating capacity above that needed for maximum load demand and transfers. This spare capacity represents the reserve of generation necessary to keep the risk of power shortages below an acceptable level.

The determination of the required amount of generation
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