3d Printing And Its Effects On The World Of Tissue Scaffold Fabrication Essay

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3D Printing On the forefront of tissue scaffold fabrication is 3D printing. 3D printers have a multitude of advantages over traditional scaffold fabrication methods. High print precision allows fibers to be deposited into 3D structures with finely tunable dimensions, 3D printers also have the ability to incorporate multiple materials into the same structure through multiple extrusion heads. Jakus et al. used a 3D extrusion based printer to create a graphene and polylactide-co-glycolide scaffold and showed it could create a 3D graphene structure (3DG) with features as small as 100 um and as large as 10cm offering a large range of applications. They also showed that 3DG supports human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) adhesion, viability, proliferation, and neurogenic differentiation with significant upregulation of glial and neuronal genes [9]. The ease in fabrication and the ability to precisely modify structure with 3D printers allows for opportunities in a wide range of tissue engineering applications. Incorporating growth factors and other bioactive molecules into a CP It is often desirable to modify the material properties of a polymer to better optimize it for different applications. Critical properties that affect the possible applications of the polymer include conductivity, porosity, hydrophobicity, degradability. There are four main processes to incorporate chemical and biological molecules into a polymer. The simplest method is adsorption, following the

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