4ps of Marketing

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Political Marketing in India

By Prof. Gurinder Singh Ahluwalia GJIMT, Mohali.

Political Marketing has already become a subject of serious study and research in the US and the West but not quite so in India in particular. Political parties prefer to rely on the experts from within the party to design its campaign strategy though advertising is outsourced to the professional advertisers. India’s oldest political party Indian National Congress used the services of commercial advertising agency way back in 1989 and since then most parties have been using marketing tools and concepts for achieving success in the elections. This paper is a desk research to
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Marketing concept is a business management philosophy that propagates the organization wide orientation to focus on customer and competitor to provide a coordinated response to the customer needs (Kohli and Jaworski, 1990; Kotler, 2003).

Marketing was born out of the need to have a channel between customers and business firms. The business firms felt the need for informing their customers about products and their uniqueness in comparison (Mauser, 1983). Later on it was pointed out that marketing tools could be extended to cover other areas besides business firm (Kotler and Levy 1969). Peter Drucker (1973) says, “The aim of marketing is to make selling superfluous. The aim of marketing is to know and understand the customer so well that the product or service fits him and sells itself. Ideally, marketing should result in a customer who is ready to buy. All that should be needed then is to make the product or service available.”

Various authors in their own way have explained the concept of marketing. Those who take ‘instrumental’ view of marketing theory see it as one of the managerial function (Kotler 1999). The marketing mix concept based on marketing instruments of product, price, place and promotion is called the 4P approach. Most marketing textbooks taught in major business schools are based on this orientation. This approach has been criticized for serious conceptual shortcomings. The managerial instrumental approach
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