5.Discussion . 5.1 Chapter Structure. This Chapter Describes

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5. Discussion
5.1 Chapter Structure
This chapter describes the relationship of the interview findings to the literature to develop the LD for physics in higher education focusing on the research question. Monash University has spent a lot of money and also dedicated huge space for implementing the new studio model. All lecturers agreed that at the beginning of implementing the studio, the learning outcome was not as satisfactory as was expected. Therefore, motivating the university administration to provide support and resources was challenging. But, now the learning outcomes are increasing and all lecturers agreed with the positive outcome of the studio. One lecturer suggested that it may take five years to fully operate the studio
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• Challenge learners: Looking for effective contribution of learners, motivating learners to be self-critical and supporting learners’ implicative skills; learners should be challenged within their ZPD. Studio physics allows a lecturer to cater to diversity.
• Provide practice: Motivating learners to discuss their learning contents among themselves and their groupmates. In active learning studio-mode, learners are responsible for their own learning. They are learning by doing, sharing.
• Planned learning outcomes: At first, the lecturer facilitates the student discussion providing them with the expected learning outcome.
• Assessment requirements: Students are aware of the assessment process.
• Information technology requirements: Studio physics is equipped with ICT tools. Students are also encouraged to bring and use their own technological device according to the learning purpose in the classroom.
• Research findings of the learning design: Intending to develop an LD for physics in higher education, I followed the Larnaca Declaration on LD (Dalziel et al., 2016) and the RASE model of LD for science education (Churchill et al., 2013). Most of the strategies used in flipped classroom, studio physics, and SCALE-UP model are
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