5- Islamic Civilization (fall; a force; & world peace).

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5.Short Notes: Each in two pages: Islamic Civilization (fall; a force; & world peace).

Islamic Civilization fall; a force

Review of "Muslim Civilisation: The Causes of Decline and the Need for Reform" by M. Umer Chapra

4 June 2011

Within 100 years of the death of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) Muslim armies had conquered most of the Middle East, North Africa and Spain, and ventured into France. For approximately the next 600 years Islamic civilisation was far ahead of Europe in its intellectual development, military prowess and legal organisation. However starting around 1700 Europeans progressively colonised virtually all Muslim majority countries which did not gain their independence until the mid-20th century. Today most
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He spends several pages discussing Ibn Khaldun 's model of dynastic rise and decline before proceeding to apply it to the problem in hand.

In my view this need to depend upon a thinker who died 500 years ago epitomises the intellectual stagnation of Muslim thought during the intervening period.
Ibn Khaldun 's theory of development and decline

In this chapter the author explains Ibn Khaldun 's concepts of statecraft which are condensed into eight points:

The strength of the sovereign does not materialise except through the implementation of the Shariah. The Shariah cannot be implemented except by the sovereign. The sovereign cannot gain strength except through the people. The people cannot be sustained except by wealth. Wealth cannot be acquired except through development. Development cannot be attained except through justice. Justice is the criterion by which God will evaluate mankind. The sovereign is charged with the responsibility of actualising justice.

The author points out that this is a cyclical model where each part impact upon every other part. In view of the interdependence, the failure of any part of the system can cause society to decline. He writes:

"This implies that the trigger mechanism for the decline of the society may not necessarily be the same in all societies. In Muslim societies, with which Ibn Khaldun was concerned, the trigger
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