This paper explores the United States, Immigration Policy from an historical, fair and factual perspective. The Immigration Act of 1990 States limited “unskilled workers to 10,000 a year. Skilled labor requirements and immediate family reunification were major goals. The Act continued to promote the nuclear family model, foreign-born in the US was 7%”. This paper will also explore the demographics and diversity, of immigrants, throughout the U.S. This paper includes an article form the website of the Washington, D.C., Immigration Policy Center, and American Immigration Council. This paper will examines significant research data from the Pew Research web site on Hispanic trends and immigration, around the United States. This paper will also cover numbers, facts and trends which shape the immigration policy. This paper will also include five different books written by authors concerning the immigration policy and public issues which most concern Americans. This paper will cover topics of history of social problems and the policies that address immigration, special interest groups advocacy groups, political party and supporters, social justice and ethical issues, policy outcomes of illegal immigrants and how other countries compare to the United States when dealing with immigration.
Deportation has been around for quite some time, but has only now become a controversial topic due to the high incarceration and deportation rate in the last decade. According to Tanya Maria Golash-Boza, sociology professor at UC Merced, and author of the book Deported Immigrant Policing, Disposable Labor, and Global Capitalism, Obama and his administration deport more than 1000 immigrants a day. In the year 2012 the Obama administration established, “an all-time record high of more than 400,000 deportees” (Golash-Boza). What is more surprising is the fact that in 2012 more individuals were deported then the sum of all the individuals deported before the year 1997 (Golash-Boza). Mass migration of illegal immigrants began with the end of Keynesianism and the beginning of the neoliberalism. The ramifications of Neoliberalism has not only affected the us economy, but U.S. laws that directly influences the well-being of illegal immigrants.
Immigration has always been a complex issue in the United States. Previous and current administrations have had great difficulties in setting policies and programs in place to address this problem. During the course of American history, laws were enacted to address such issues. There were numerous legislative milestones in regards to immigration in the United States. In order to understand the current issues regarding immigration, we have to look back at the policies that were in place along with the goals that they intended to serve. According to (Barusch, 2012), the United States had an open immigration policy; which means that anyone could relocate to this country. As a result of this policy, the government had to redefine
Since the terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001, immigration control and national homeland security have been issues of concern for both the national government and private citizens. In the wake of the attacks, a lot of articles were written about what the appropriate response should be to prevent another attack. In 2004, Mark Krikorian wrote an article for the Providence Journal entitled “Safety through Immigration Control” in which he contends that the only means to keep America safe from a follow-up attack is to strengthen and enforce immigration law to prevent terrorists from being able to enter the country. Edwidge Danticat, writing for The Nation in 2005, provides a juxtaposition to Krikorian’s stance in her essay “Not Your Homeland”, in which she describes her witnessing of the inhumane conditions many immigrants are forced to endure in the name of increased security to protect the country. She questions whether the added protections are worth the human cost we are paying by treating immigrants and refugees as guilty until proven innocent. At the crossroads of these two perspectives lies the question: what is the proper balance between national security and the humane treatment of immigrants?
Starting from the beginning, the September 11th, 2001 attacks cost the lives of 3000 US civilians, injured over 6000 more, and cost trillions of dollars over the years by numerous calculations. The immediate response by
On September 11th 2001, the United States was hit with a devastating blow when four commercial airplanes were hijacked by Al-Qaeda terrorist who deliberately crashed two of the planes into the World Trade Center complex, and a third plane into the Pentagon. The fourth plane, headed for Washington D.C., instead crashed in Pennsylvania. Nearly 3,000 lives were lost on this egregious day. In response, President George W. Bush waged the controversial “Global War on Terrorism” which turned out to be a self-inflicted wound for America, bleeding still today. Bush’s highly-criticized decision was inconsistent with the strategic principles of war.
Mexico was estimated up to 70% from those undocumented workers. (Reiff, 2013) In 2001, Bush and congress hoped to help Mexican immigration to U.S. by the legislation immigration reform but the reform had to hold on since the terrorist attacks in September 11, 2001. In 2005, the U.S. House of Representatives supported the Border Protection and the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act were passed by the Senates in 2006. However, both of these cannot be a law because their contents are a few differences and had conflicts with conference committee. (Nakamura, 2014) In 2009, Barack Obama restarted this comprehensive discussion of immigration reform. In the speech of November 20, 2014, U.S. president Obama stated the current immigration system is broken and summed up the necessary of the immigration reform such as new immigrant families were flout by others, business owners provided the less wages and benefits to undocumented immigrants and most of immigrants only wanted to earn the money, regardless of the responsibilities of living in the U.S., which caused them being apart from the others and society, staying in the dark shadows all the time. (Obama, November 2014) In case of the problem coming worses, President Obama began a series of executive actions to fix the system on immigration. This article introduces some key players in US politics and how their strategies to support
The events of September 11, 2001 initiated another shift in the United States' immigration policy by dramatically increasing immigration enforcement. Immigrant removals, including deportations and so-called voluntary departures, had doubled since the attacks and fewer immigrants, especially from the Middle East are allowed in the Western countries. United States and other big countries in the European Union were the first ones to revise their policy in line with the new context of national security. Since September 11 attacks, the emphasis of American immigration policies became border security and removing criminal immigrants to keep national safety and prevent future terrorist attacks. At the same time, the United States kept its commitment
The United States faces serious issues surrounding current immigration policy. The situation produces debates throughout the country and a further divided congress, a scared nation, and scattered troops. Solutions have been presented in the form of very big walls, complex tracking systems, and overly simplified exportation of illegal aliens. However, no real steps of action have been agreed upon to rectify the situation. The US boast in its diversity; stemming from immigrants seeking recovery and opportunity. In the past, the nation thrived under the minds and views of many different peoples and cultures. The US people and government gradually showed themselves to be a dominant international force in the global community. Because of the melting pot of backgrounds, innovation thrived in the medical, science, mathematical, and engineering fields. Policy in the last 50 years naturally migrated towards the progressive attitude of nation, affected by the large population of immigrants, but the attitude changed detrimentally and dramatically after the attacks on 9/11. Based on fear and anxiety, many immigration policies were changed to protect citizens from reliving such a catastrophic event once again. The AIC, American Immigration Council, summarizes the purpose of Immigration law as “the reunification of families, admitting immigrants with skills that are valuable to the U.S. economy, protecting refugees, and promoting diversity.” (How the United)
The 9/11 attacks triggered the intensification of the 2001 Recession (Amadeo). This was one of America's worst economic downfalls. As a result of the attacks, "the economic costs were estimated to be nearly $100 billion", according to the NYC Comptroller William C. Thompson, Jr. (Brooks). New York City's cost alone made up a huge part of the debt. It totaled between $83 billion and $95 billion (Brooks). One of the main factors from this huge amount of financial obligations was the city's infrastructure. It cost $21.8 billion to restore buildings that were ruined and demolished, various other organizational structures and facilities, and other renters' belongings (Brooks). The attacks also caused the 2008 financial crisis. This fiasco resulted
In the wake of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, the U.S. government implemented a series of critical — and sometimes controversial — immigration policy measures to respond to future threats of terrorism. As we commemorate the tenth anniversary of the 9/11 attacks, it is a timely moment to reflect on the status and the legacy of those policy measures. Since all 19 terrorists who attacked the United States that September morning were foreign nationals who had entered the country through legal travel channels, detecting and preventing terrorist activity became the paramount objective of post-9/11 U.S. immigration policy and programs. In the decade since 9/11, immigration policy has been viewed principally through the lens of national
The September 11 attacks were set of four terrorist attacks controlled by al-Qaeda, an Islamic terrorist group. On September 11, 2001, four aircrafts were hijacked by the terrorists; two of the planes hit Twin towers in New York, third hit the Pentagon and the fourth one crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania (“9/11 Attacks”). The September 11 attacks had several long-term negative effects that include Social effects, Psychological effects, Physical health effects, Economic effects and many more. But of all those effects, Economic effects were the most suffered ones. The 9/11 attacks triggered the devastation of American economy (Miley). Although it has been 12 years since the episode and America has recovered a lot, American
The Economic consequences of terrorism (Lenain, P (2002) stated that Private businesses suffered profound destruction of assets that was calculated in national accounts to amass to $14billion, state and federal government enterprises suffered a loss in the region of $2billion, what was also astounding to read was that the rescue and clean-up costs totaled to an amount of at least $11billion.
The second type of measure is economic loss, measured as the loss of economic prosperity by people, firms, or governments and derived from impact studies of the resulting damages (Frey et al., 2007). The economic loss measurements capture the direct market value impact of terrorism, but do not fully account for intangible losses. Finally, the third category of measurement of impact is utility loss, often used in human resource journal articles concerning terrorism. The utility loss category captures the qualitative indirect and intangible losses of terrorism, such as well-being and emotional impact. For this study, we use the cumulative number of terrorist incidents to measure a firm’s prior exposure to terrorism.