A Brief History of the World after 1450

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The period 1450s saw an existence of powerful cities such as Asia, Africa, and Americas with established trading networks over land and sea. Societies in Asia and the Middle East were the world leaders in economics; in science and technology; and in shipping, trade, and exploration until about AD 1500 (Goldstone, 2009). Europe emerged from the Middle Ages and entered its Renaissance, well behind many of the advanced civilizations elsewhere in the world and did not catch up with and surpass the leading Asian societies until about AD 1800 (Ibid). This history leads one to enquire what was so special that the West did or have to rise to the current global stature that it has become. Though presumptions have been to point to a unique European defined path to success, these have been cast by a cloud of doubt following Japan’s rise as the second largest economy in the 1980s leaving the questions about the western origins of political and economic ideas and institutions (Rosenthal and Wong, 2010). During the nineteenth and twentieth century western thought explained the rise and dominance of their region through biological causes, stating that they were genetically superior as only they had evolved further than everyone else. Morris (2010) reputed this claim as mere scientific racism which is defined as the act of justifying inequalities between natural groups of people by recourse to science (Marks, 2012). He argues that people, wherever they are from, in large groups, are
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