A Brief Look at Poliomyelitis

1377 WordsFeb 17, 20185 Pages
INTRODUCTION Poliomyelitis is often called polio, this polio is an acute infectious disease caused by a virus which can spread from person to person via the fecal- oral route. The term poliomyelitis means inflammation of the spinal cord of the grey matter. In severe poliomyelitis infection it can expand to the brainstem. Polio is so contagious that anyone living with a person that is recently affected can spread the virus for weeks in their feces. It invades the nervous system and spread within hours. Poliomyelitis causes infection with a member of the genus called the enterovirus which is known as the poliovirus. It belongs to a group of Ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses which affects the gastrointestinal tract especially the intestine and the oropharynx. Its structure is very simple, composed of a single positive sense RNA genome which is enclosed in a protein shell called the capsid. The capsid apart from protecting the virus genetic material, it capsid protein also make the polio virus to infect some certain types of cells. There are three serotypes of poliovirus that have been identified; it includes the poliovirus type 1, poliovirus type of 2 and poliovirus 3. They all look similar but have a small different structure in its capsid protein. The poliovirus type 1 is the one that causes most of the disease and is mostly associated with paralysis. Poliomyelitis can come in two ways of polio infection .There is a minor illness which does not involve the Central

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