A Brief Note On Diabetic Ketoacidosis : A Potentially Life Threatening Complication Found Patient Who Have Diabetes Mellitus

1036 Words Feb 15th, 2016 5 Pages
Reflection Paper: DKA Simulation

Pathophysiology
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a potentially life threatening complication found patient who have diabetes mellitus.. Most often DKA, is the first presenting symptom in undiagnosed diabetics, illness in diabetics, and/or poor compliance with insulin therapy. Diabetic Ketoacidosis Is an event marked by shortage of insulin production, thus the body breaks down fat into ketone bodies to compensate for needed energy production. The lack of insulin is compensated with increased glucagon levels from the liver, osmotic diuresis occurs in which high glucose levels are excreted thought the kidneys leading to polyuria, dehydration, and polydipsia. The ketone bodies cause the body to become acidotic, the bicarbonate buffering system become overworked and hyperventilation (Kussmaul respirations), this allows carbon dioxide to be released. This is when symptoms become apparent, most often the patient will have vomiting, confusion, polyphagia, polydipsia, polyuria, hyperventilation, abdominal pain, fruity breath and occasionally coma. DKA is diagnosed by blood and urine test. The blood test will show an elevated Hemoglobin A1c; metabolic acidosis: plasma pH under 7.35, plasma bicarbonate under 15 mEq/L, elevated blood sugar above 250 mg/dL, abnormal sodium, chloride levels, hyperkalemia. Urine test will show elevated ketones, and glucose.
Diagnosis/Interventions
ϖ Deficient fluid volume related to osmotic diuresis due to hyperglycemia
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