A Brief Note On Sepsis And Septic Shock

9966 Words Jul 26th, 2015 40 Pages

Pathophysiology questions (50 points)
Adv Nursing questions (85 points)
Pharmacology (30 points)

1. Discuss the magnitude of bacteremia and sepsis in hospitalized patients and the relationship between these two diagnoses. (5 points)

Septic shock is the leading cause of death for patients in intensive care units and is the final stage in a continuum of infectious and inflammatory processes. This continuum begins with bacteremia, which is the presence of bacteria in the blood. Normally the body’s immune system can fight off a localized infection caused by a small amount of bacteria in the blood and the person will remain asymptomatic. However, a hospitalized patient could be immunocompromised, have a debilitating chronic illness, have a poor nutritional status, or may post-op after an invasive procedure or surgery, which would put the patient at higher risk for symptomatic bacteremia and sepsis due to the inability of the immune system to fight off an infection. Additionally, hospitalized patients often have various portals of entry for bacterial infections, including urinary catheters, mechanical ventilation, endotracheal tubes, surgical wounds, intravenous catheters, invasive monitors, and trauma sites. Because hospitalized patients are at higher risk for infection and are unable to fight off otherwise harmless bacteria, it is much more likely for bacteria to enter the bloodstream directly, causing bacteremia that will trigger a systemic…
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