A Comparative Review of the Vascular System in Seed Plants and Humans

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A comparative review of the vascular system in seed plants and humans

In the evolutionary tree of life, all biotic organisms are believed to have derived from a common ancestor. The organisms falling under the eukaryotic kingdom of Plantae are known to have arisen in the same time period as those in the eukaryotic kingdom of Animalia—the Paleozoic era, about 500 million years ago (MYA) (Raven et al., 2008). Despite their chronological resemblance, their evolutionary diversity is especially great in their most advanced organisms—humans and seed plants. One key system that illustrates this diversity is the vascular system (or the cardiovascular system in humans). The vascular system of the respective lines of
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While xylem transports water and nutrients that generally originate at the roots, phloem transports food (in the form of sugars), hormones, and mRNA which generally originate in the leaf of the plant. Additionally, while water is moved through passive transport, food requires energy to be driven throughout the length of the root and shoot, and is thus carried through active transport. Food transport is said to go from a source (where it is made) to a sink (where it is needed) (Vaucher, 2003). Humans use a more intricate network of systems to keep the internal body conditions moist and nourished. The cardiovascular system is the primary network of tubules responsible for molecular transport. Humans extract nutrients, vitamins, and other vital compounds from food in the gastrointestinal tract; extraction of minerals, vitamins, blood, and vital compounds from liquids is done primarily in the glomerulus of the kidney (Raven et al., 2008). Once the necessary molecules are in the blood stream, the cardiovascular system delivers it to the desired tissue through diffusion. The cardiovascular system of humans uses the heart to circulate blood throughout the body. The human heart is composed of four chambers; the left atrium and left ventricle transport oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body, incoming deoxygenated blood filters from the superior and inferior vena cava to right atrium and

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