Epigenetics is a study that entails the heritage changes in gene expressions, which includes both the active and the inactive genes; the changes do not involve changes to the underlying DNA sequence. Meaning, it is a change in phenotypes without the differences in genotypes and consequently, affect how the cells read the genes. The epigenetic modification is a natural occurrence but apparently can be influenced by other several factors, including diseases, the environment, and age. Epigenetic changes can result in adverse damages and can end up causing infections such as cancer (Barton et al, 2016). This paper looks at what epigenetics entails, the hidden life of our genes, how food affects genes and how one can elongate life by improving health status.
The first major effects of epigenetics on genes can be seen in the role of DNA methylation in mammalian epigenetics. DNA methylation provides a method of gene control in an organism, where it assures proper gene expression, as well as silencing of genes within cells, it does this through the manipulation of chromosome architecture, where it affects the packaging of the DNA by the binding of a methyl group to cytosine (Kullis & Esteller, 2010). The effects of this can
The following results helped obtain the haplogroup that in which the sequence of mtDNA would identify. The PCR reaction worked, and this can be determined by looking at the agarose gel in figure 1. If the PCR reaction was successful, than a band should appear around 550bp. Individual AC displays a band around 550bp, this means the PCR reaction was successful. The band for individual AC, depicts a low concentration of product, because the band faint. After the purification process the concentration, A260/280 ratio, and A260/A230 ratio were determined by using the nanodrop. The concentration of mtDNA in the product was 60.9 ng/uL. The ratio for A260/280 was 1.79 and the ratio for A260/230 was 0.77. The A260 and 280 are a spectrometer measurement that measure absorbance at wavelengths of
However, analysis of intact fetal cells for detection of aneuploidies and genetic disease shifted away from this when in 1997, Lo et al. first reported the presence of fetal DNA circulating in maternal blood. Free fetal DNA (ffDNA) along with RNA (ffRNA) have opened the door to a multitude of downstream analytical techniques of the fetal genome and transcriptome. Because ffDNA can be isolated through noninvasive methods--all one requires is a sample of maternal blood--clinician-scientists have focused on improving diagnostic methods with ffDNA. Currently, ffDNA is used in the noninvasive diagnosis of Rhesus blood group genotype, sex determination, fetal aneuploidies, and other genetic disorders (Bianchi,
In this paper I will answer some questions about blood and related issues. Some of the questions I will answer are: what is the significance of a lower than normal haematocrit? what is erythropoiesis?why would the level of leukocytes be higher in an individual who has been infected with a parasitic disease. In regions where malaria is endemic, some people build up immune resistance to the malaria pathogen. Which WBCs are responsible for the immune response against pathogens? How do they function?
Four microcentrifuge tubes were placed in a rack, labeled and numbered, in order to identify the group and the DNA/restriction enzyme that it held. Each of the tubes initially received 10 microliters of reaction buffer. There were two samples of suspect DNA provided along with two restriction enzymes (EcoRI and HindIII). Tubes labeled 1 and 2 received 15 μL of DNA from suspect one while tubes 3 and 4 received 15 μL of DNA from suspect two. Following that, 15 μL of Enzyme 1 (EcoRI) were added to tubes 1 and 3, and 15 μL of Enzyme 2 (HindIII) were added to tubes 2 and 4. (Table 1). The tubes were then gently tapped on the counter to mix the DNA and enzyme solution followed by incubation at 37°C for 45 minutes. After incubation, 5 μL of 10x gel loading dye were added to each of the four tubes of suspect DNA. The tubes were then placed on ice while the gel was under preparation.
Epigenetics refers to external modifications to DNA that turn genes on or off. These alterations do not change the DNA sequence, but instead, they affect how cells read genes. One common example of an epigenetic change is DNA methylation. DNA methylation is the addition of a methyl group to part of the DNA molecule which prevents certain genes from being expressed. It should be noted that epigenetics is a fairly new subdivision in genetics and its importance in evolution and heritability is currently being developed and debated (Furrow 2011).
A related phrase described by Waddington to help elaborate the phenomenon of epigenetics, the ‘epigenetic landscape’ attempts to explain how identical genotypes could result in a wide variety of phenotypic variation through the process of development. This epigenetic landscape can be dynamic – capturing genetic, environmental, and cell lineage effects – and has been shown to be at least partly heritable. (Szyf, M. (2015) Nongenetic inheritance and transgenerational epigenetics. Trends Mol. Med. 21, 134–144). The epigenetic code is hypothesized to be a defining code in every eukaryotic cell consisting of the specific epigenetic modifications in each cell. While in one individual the genetic code in each cell is the same, the epigenetic code is tissue & cell
In fact, epigenetics opens wide opportunities to enhance studies in the field of medicine, biology, zoology and other fields of science. In some directions, epigenetics can help to make a breakthrough in the development of some fields of science. This is why one should never narrow the scope and potential of epigenetics. The understanding of chemical reactions and genome activation and deactivation are extremely important for understanding of fundamental principles of the development of living beings and their functioning in the course of their
Despite what the light switch metaphor would have many people believe, individual DNA methylation sites are usually partially methylated. This means that there are multiple sequences from the same cell type or tissue preparation that must be run to estimate the percentage of methylated nucleotides. Another limitation of epigenetics is the cell and tissue specificity of DNA methylation. Epigenetic modifications are extremely variable and depend on cell type, differentiation state and hormonal and environmental conditions. Every individual neuron could have different patterns of DNA methylation or histone modification in their genome. Because of this, the value of determining a reference cell epigenome is only usable sometimes. Especially for neuron cells due to their inherent
The PBS video called “Epigenetics” brought to light some very interesting views. Through rats scientist have been able to see the works of epigenetics and believe that the finding have led to the idea that the change in genetics has the same effect on humans. The most interesting part of the video was that younger pairs of twins have very similar genes, but the older pairs of twin have more epigenetic difference in their genes. This validates the idea that the epigenetic difference in old twins is caused by environmental factors such as lifestyle choices. The idea also alludes to the idea that our parents and grandparents healthy and epigenetics may affect my heath and my children’s health. This leads to the inclination that my child’s health
Methyl-seq was performed on genomic DNA isolated from lymphoblasts, providing DNA methylation patterns of the entire genome for each individual. Several loci displayed hypermethylation in both BPD patients compared to their unaffected siblings. When the lymphoblast cells were treated with a therapeutic dose of lithium (1mM), results showed hypomethylation at several loci. Among these, one locus had been hypermethylated in the BPD cells. This differentially methylated locus was where the novel lncRNA, LINC00486, was located. Sequencing data has indicated LINC00486 is found in human chromosome 2 and is flanked by genes TTC27 and LTBP1. A mouse homolog has yet to be discovered. Three distinct RNAs are predicted to be transcribed from the LINC00486 locus, each of different lengths and containing different exons.
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