A Comprehensive Public Schooling System

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Since the creation of a comprehensive public schooling system, American citizens have held a great faith in the power of education (Tyack & Cuban, 1995) and that institutions commitment to meet the needs and interests of all young citizens (Tyack & Hansot, 1986). Yet, access to an “equal” K-12 education has always been a contested struggle for black citizens in the United States. The access to equitable public schools continues to be a topic of contested debate across this country. On the one hand, educational institution have provided opportunities for some, while on the other hand, some argued rigged (Anderson, 2009) to provide minimal improvements in the lives for black and brown students, because of the continued structural, institutional, and symbolic advantages and disadvantages that are distributed unequally (Tyack, 1974), based on race (Diamond, 2006). According to educational historian, David Labaree (2010), this nation’s democratic equality principle of education has been increasingly undermined by the countertendencies toward inequality, with usually students of color and low-income receiving the wrong end of the stick (McGee-Banks, 1993).

Today, the recent trend of data collection has made it clear that educational disparities—highlighted by race and class—continue to exist in this country (Ishimaru & Galloway, 2014; Milner 2012; McGee-Banks, 1993; Noguera, 2001). Both at the national and local level of education a great number of students of color and low-SES

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