A Hub Of Cellular Adaptive Response

855 Words Aug 3rd, 2015 4 Pages
1.2.4 ATF3: a hub of cellular adaptive response
The wide use of the DNA microarray technique to study systemic gene expression (mRNA) profiles has rapidly contributed to the growing list of signals that can induce ATF3 expression. ATF3 is induced by tissue-injury, infection, oxidative stress, chemicals, alcohol, chemotherapeutic agents, hypoxia, genotoxic agents and others (see reviews). In addition to the above mentioned stresses, ATF3 is also induced by stimuli that are typically not considered as stress stimuli such as serum, cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and others. Thus, ATF3 is more accurately characterized as an “adaptive response” gene that helps cells to adapt to extra- and/or –intra-cellular changes.
Extra-cellular stimuli trigger intra-cellular signaling pathways, which in turn upregulate ATF3. For instance, the p38 MAPK pathway is necessary for various signals (such as anisomycin, IL-1β (interleukin 1β), TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α) and H2O2 to induce ATF3. Prostaglandin induction of ATF3 in the bovine corpus luteum is inhibited by inhibitors of the ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK pathways. Various other pathways are also linked with ATF3 induction such as the Smad, Myc, Ras and NF- pathways (Review). In fact, a review of existing literature clearly underlines one feature of ATF3 induction: it is neither tissue-specific nor stimulus specific. ATF3 is induced in many different cell types, both in vivo and in vitro, by many different extra-cellular and…
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