A Meta Analysis Of Schizophrenia Used By Heinrichs And Zakzanis

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Within the 47 studies, were wide ranges of neuropsychological tests including 156 cognitive test variables. This meta-analysis categorized the tests into ten broad, separable cognitive domains allowing for a general outline. These tests were categorized based on a similar outline for a meta-analysis of schizophrenia used by Heinrichs and Zakzanis in 1998. These ten cognitive domains support quantitative and interpretive comparisons and include: immediate verbal memory, attention (divided into three subdomains of processing speed, working memory, and vigilance), nonverbal memory, general cognitive ability, language functions, visuospatial abilities, delayed verbal memory and learning strategies, executive functioning, social cognition, and motor skills. Studies show medium to large deficits for first episode schizophrenia samples compared to the control samples. Testing indicated first episode samples preform worse and show impairments in each domain category compared to control samples based on negative ES values. In addition, analyses showed significant heterogeneity amongst all ten domains (Mesholam-Gately et al., 2009).
It is evident that there are significant impairments among first episode samples in the three groups of memory, specifically in both serial list learning and story memory immediate recall where SMDs were -1.20. A smaller ES (SMD of -0.85) was found in delayed verbal memory and learning strategies; similarly, the nonverbal memory domain SMD was -0.91. All
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