In a looking glass of a sociologist, we can see white collar crime in our everyday world. When it presents itself; the victims are left hurt and the rest in awe of their awful actions. White Collar Crime is defined as “White collar crime overlaps with corporate crime because the opportunity for fraud, bribery, insider trading, embezzlement, computer crime, and forgery is more available to white-collar employees.” stated by James Henslin. White Collar Crime can be seen in the Libor Scandal, as a prime example.
White collar crime, as a rule, is less visible than conventional crime. A white collar crime, by definition, is a non-violent act involving deception, typically committed by a business person or public official. lawyershop.com
White Collar crime is not a crime unto it self, but instead a criteria that has to be met in order for a crime to be considered as White- Collar Crime; (Blount, 2002) hence the reason why Corporate Crime is also considered as White- Collar Crime. At the same time, White Collar Crime and Corporate Crime can be seen as distinct criminological categories, however, in order to reveal this, this essay will firstly be exploring Sutherland's definition of white collar crime and the perplexity with this definition of white-collar crime. It will then be looking at the modification which had to take place with Sutherland's definition of white-collar crime in order to established a distinction between white-collar and corporate crime.
There was a time when white collar was not actually considered because of laws being particularly targeted for violent crimes. Nevertheless, times have changed for a better outcome dealing with white-collar crime. Even recent years have shown results. As stated by the FBI (2010-2011) During FY 2011, cases pursued by the FBI resulted in 242 indictments/information and 241 convictions of corporate criminals. Numerous cases are pending plea agreements and trials. During FY 2011, the FBI secured $2.4 billion in restitution orders and $16.1 million in fines from corporate criminals. So it is a newly developed crime
A white-collar crime by definition is a crime that is committed by individuals of higher status. It is not necessarily a violent crime, but could be depending on the situation. An individual who works in a professional environment, such as the government or corporation tend to take advantage of employees and manipulate them into thinking their practices are legitimate. Some examples, of white-collar crimes include fraud, embezzlement, insider trading, and other various crimes. However, individuals who involve them selves in drugs or stealing someone’s personal possessions commit street crime. For example, it tends to be violent depending on the situation and it usually happens in a public place or
Most people, when they hear the word “crime,” think about street crime or violent crime such as murder, rape, theft, or drugs. However, there is another type of crime that has cost people their life savings, investors’ billions of dollars, and has had significant impacts of multiple lives; it is called white collar crime. The Federal Bureau of Investigation defines white collar crime as
Peacemaking criminology does not base itself on retribution and punishment. Peacemaking criminology bases its principles from the religious, humanist, critical, and feminist traditions. Peacemaking emphasizes conflict resolution, rehabilitation, restorative justice, and a belief that people must cooperate in democratic institutions in order to develop steadfast communities. The peace perspective emphasizes social justice so crime is never excused. Peacemaking criminology argue that crime is connected to human suffering and believes for crime to stop we first must end suffering. The postmodern theory is a theoretical approach that attacks modernity or scientific rationality. Postmodern criminology holds to the theory that crime is the result of the social interactions in an area. I’ve noticed that conflict criminology is considerably more general than radical criminology. Conflict criminology takes a different approach since it is based on a "labelling" definition of crime; crime is whatever the agencies of the criminal justice system state crime to be. Radical criminology appears to be directionless while peacemaking criminology is very methodically in their approach to crime. Postmodern criminology is in direct conflict with the more Marxism theory of radical criminology. “ By expanding upon theories that have already been created, it is possible for individuals to evolve the beliefs more and hopefully get closer to the truth of identifying how a criminal is created and what effects this has on individuals and the society
White-collar crime is defined as the financial motivations of non-violent crimes that are committed by professionals of business and those of the government. In the field of criminology, Edwin Suthelan (1939), a socialist who was the first person to define white-collar crime as a crime that respectable and those people of higher social status commit. The crimes include those associated with fraud, bribery, embezzlement, cybercrime, money laundering, theft of the identity and many more crimes that are nonviolent. For the white collar crimes, the offenses committed should produce some gains financially. The crimes are thereby committed by those persons holding various positions in businesses or organizations, and it is because of this position they can gain access to amounts of huge money that they get from the people like customers with whom they serve. The criminals involved are not caught in activities that are violent, involved in drug issues or illegal activities.
Although white collar crime is a growing problem worldwide, it remains a concept that cannot easily be grasped. One of the largest difficulties in understanding white-collar crime revolves around an ongoing debate about how to define white-collar crime. One of the first and most utilised definitions is Sutherlands. This definition received a large amount of criticism but is still widely used throughout criminology. Therefore the purpose of this essay will be to outline that although Sutherland’s definition of white collar crime does not specifically encompass all areas of white collar crime, it remains effective as it generates discussion and allows for a broader perspective on an issue that is ever-changing and too extensive to be narrowly
White Collar Crimes are those illegal acts which are characterized by deceit, concealment, or violation of trust and which are not dependent upon the application or threat of physical force or violence. Individuals and organizations commit these acts to obtain money, property, or services; to avoid the payment or loss of money or services; or to secure personal or business advantage.
White-Collar Crime consists of occupational crime and corporate crime. Occupational crime refers to offences committed against legitimate institutions businesses or government by those with "respectable" social status. It includes the embezzlement of corporate funds, tax evasion, computer crime and expense-account fraud. It is not every day that we hear about white-collar crimes but these non-violent crimes are on the rise to the top. Federal Bureau of Investigation states that USA, for example recorded white collar crimes amounting $300 billion every year (Cornell University, 2010). White-collar crime is relatively a new idea. It has many aspects that are practical for study and further interpretation to clear some of its dark areas. White-Collar Crime was once introduced by Edwin Sutherland in 1939 during his speech in American Sociological Society. The following crimes actually performed are Bribery, Extortion, Insurance, Fraud, Embezzlement, Cybercrime etc. People who participate in these criminal activities are highly powerful and respectful among the society. The following activities include description about White-collar Crime, Investigation of White Collar Crime and The Consequences of committing a White-collar Crime.
In this paper the exciting criminal phenomenon known as white-collar crime will be discussed. Corporate Crime and Computer Crime will be discussed in detail. Crime preventative agencies such as the NCPC (National Crime Prevention Council) will also be researched. White Collar Crime The late Professor Edwin Sutherland coined the term white-collar crime about 1941. Sutherland defined white-collar crime as "a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation" (Siegel 337) White-collar crime includes, by way of example, such acts as promulgating false or misleading advertising, illegal exploitation of employees, mislabeling of goods, violation of weights and measures statutes, conspiring to
White collar crime has been recognized as something that is an issue since 1939 when it was brought up in a political meeting by Edwin Sutherland. Sutherland was interested in the fact that people of the working class were not being noticed for the crimes that some of them are involved in. The concern was that the criminal activity that was being addressed during this time were predominantly trivial crimes. While they were getting all the attention while corporate criminals were going virtually undetected. The definition Sutherland attached to these criminals was centered on the varieties of crimes that they committed. White Collar crime is defined as a criminal act perpetrated
Within this first assignment, the main aim is to evaluate the contribution made by classicist criminology to the provision of effective responses to criminal behaviour. Criminology has a modest definition that states the link between criminology and the study of crime, for example, why people commit actions and how society responds to this behaviour (P Joyce, 2009). When defining whether an act is criminal or not it is most likely to be viewed as an act of wrong doing by most members of society and is consequently punishable by law. Classicism was developed within the late eighteenth century Europe, and was a reaction to traditional views and practices regarding crime and punishment.