Social control theory and social learning theory are two theories that suggest why deviant behavior is chosen to be acted upon by some individuals and not others. Both take a different stance on the issue. Social control theory suggests people’s behavior is based on their bonds to society, if they have strong bonds to society they conform and if not they have a tendency to act out or become involved in criminal or deviant behavior. Social learning theory suggest that through vicarious learning people learn from observing others and based on what the observe make the choice of whether to copy those actions to obtain desired results or chose not to if
Many individuals have the power to alter their perception, but many people have disorders to comfort and confront their psychological perspectives. In the film, Silver Linings Playbook, directed by David O. Russell explains how psychological disorders are maintained within Pat and Tiffany, and explaining their theoretical personalities to three sub categories: psychodynamic, biological and trait, and sociocultural. The psychodynamic perspective looks at the topographical and structural model created by Freud. In continuation, the biological perspective is based on the genetic traits, and the Big 5 personality traits. Finally, I'll discuss the sociocultural perspective which a based on the environment factors in one's life. All of these perspectives
American culture has been referred to as a “melting pot.” Different cultures have added their own distinct aspects to society, making America a diverse country. Despite the plethora of cultures, certain norms, mores, and folkways are evident in American society. These ideas are vital to the function and stability of America. They provide guidelines for what is acceptable and not. In virtually every society, there are people who engage in deviant behavior and do not abide by the values that the rest of society follows. Theorists have debated if people are socialized into acting this way and if it is a social or personal problem. The sociological study of culture focuses on norms, mores, and folkways.
5. At what Freudian stage is Steve fixated? What evidence is there of it? Describe the
Merton presented his theory, sources of deviant behavior were mainly recognized at the specific level. Deviance was caused from biological and psychological deficiencies, therefore having little to do with the social structure. Merton identified two primary elements of culture that influence disruptive behavior; culturally distinctive goals and suitable means of accomplishing individual’s goals. Resources of achieving financial accomplishment, such as education and employment,
While reading Oddly Normal by John Schwartz, I accumulated several sentiments towards the treatment of his third child Joseph. While in elementary school, Joseph endured several ineffective educators and professionals who did not comprehend the seemingly ‘troubled child’ or who dismissed Joseph’s differentially with labels of diagnoses that were inaccurate and unable to define him as an individual. For a few years, John and his family endured the confusion and chaos that formulated with coming to understand a child who did not even understand himself.
In Treatment’s Dr. Paul Weston appears to largely use psychodynamic theory during his sessions with Sophie, the teenaged gymnast who is seeing him after an accident which is believed to have been a potential suicide attempt. However, as is the case with most therapists, Paul does not focus solely on psychodynamics when treating Sophie, drawing on the universal qualities of all therapists as well as some cognitive techniques. There are several instances of this unique blend of techniques throughout Sophie’s episodes, as well as the continual theme of psychodynamics that seems to be Paul’s main practicing theory.
Winnicott’s, on the other hand, will approach Mike’s problems in relation to the individual’s experience and response to society or its environment, as well as his characteristics in the light of the primary and secondary processes as complementary, rather than as being in opposition. Winnicott 's theoretical elusiveness has been linked to his efforts to modify Freudian and Kleinian views on the instincts and the harsh realities they had found in infant life. Instead, Winnicott studies the progress of the development of relationships themselves, observing how the individual becomes an individual, and assessing how infants’ environment affects the authentic self. Mike’s mother probably did not notice how much he was struggling because of the distraction of her own problems presented. It appears that Mike had developed a “false-self”, a self Winnicott describes as a defense that a child develops to protect the “true-self”. It revealed itself through compliance and rigidity as a way of coping with the world but prevented his emotional growth (Winnicott, 1963).
Alfred Adler, a renowned and highly influential psychologist who came to prominence in the early part of the 20th century coined the term ‘family constellation’, which served as a metaphor to describe the influence of familial bonds and dynamics upon the personality development of individuals, particularly children. Adler’s conception of the family constellation has been adopted and studied extensively since his time. Rudolf Dreikurs built upon Adler’s work some years later, and vouched for the usefulness of the family constellation perspective in psychoanalytic work:
Certain areas of the world as we know it can be extremely deviant places. However, for the most part, individuals within society possess solid cravings to conform and abide by social norms, culture, and expectations. Needless to say, the process of conforming is dependent upon the appropriate behaviors and norms as decided by the culture and society that each of us belongs to. This notion is known as cultural relativity and it is the base from which conflict and divergence arise. Sociologist’s stress that deviant behavior cannot be evaluated based upon what is right or wrong, it must instead be determined by social responses to negative behavior.
Social control theory has become one of the more widely accepted explanations in the field of criminology in its attempt to account for rates in crime and deviant behavior. Unlike theories that seek to explain why people engage in deviant behavior, social control theories approach deviancy from a different direction, questioning why people refrain from violating established norms, rules, and moralities. The theory seeks to explain how the normative systems of rules and obligations in a given society serve to maintain a strong sense of social cohesion, order and conformity to widely accepted and established norms. Central to this theory is a perspective which predicts that deviant behavior is much more likely to emerge when
The social component refers to social factors like religion, culture, socioeconomic class, ethnicity, and other spheres of influence (Valerie. 2010). Social influences such as aggressive role models, violent media, politics of low socioeconomic neighborhoods, and environmental factors influence crime (Valerie. 2010). For example, a child growing up in a dysfunctional family and in the presence of alcohol, drugs, violence, and criminal activity, is more likely to engage in similar behaviors later in life (Cassel & Bernstein, 2007). Family dynamics and parenting styles can leave the child subject to undefined guidelines and little supervision and these environmental and social factors mixed with psychological dysfunction can lead to deviant behavior
Behavior shifts on a broad spectrum between the expected or accepted behavior and behavior that is considered abnormal. As a result, the identification of a definite position of transition from normal to abnormal behavior is significantly challenging. It has been argued that abnormal behavior is merely accentuated normal behavior that has been exaggerated; hence, to distinguish such behavior from the norm can be quite difficult (Hansell & Damour, 2008). In addition, psychopathology and abnormal behavior have been subjected to changes in social and cultural dynamics over time.
Beyond Steven’s inability to emotionally connect and commit to those around him, the writer reveals that his character is actually extremely self-conscious about his ability to succeed in life and life up to this acute ideology he created in his mind when he was 9 years old on page 24. Stuck on the notion that he would always “come up short” in life, Steven repeatedly spirals father and father from those closest to him on his quest to get his life together.
An important social issue found in our society is the way deviant acts are “resolved” within society and different factors that influence deviance (behavior that violates social norms and arouses negative reactions). There are quite a few theories that can be applied to more than one individual or situation, behind why people commit deviant acts. This is considered a social issue due to the occurrence of crime in society with a “one-size-fits-all” approach to dealing with crime. This issue leads to controversy because different groups of people have different beliefs on how to resolve the continued perpetuation of crime. One of the groups forming an outlook are sociologists, who believe that people commit deviant acts because they grow up in socially disorganized conditions; because they are experiencing anomie, or social strain; as well as others believing that deviance is a learned behavior. Among the range of believers are biologists, who believe that people commit deviant acts because their bodies and bodily processes are different from those of conventional people, including their genes, inherited traits from parents, their improperly functioning brain receptors and/or their low resting heart rate. Along with sociologists and biologists are psychologists who have their own beliefs, which include the idea that people commit deviant acts because they are not fully mature in their cognition or moral development, they do not form healthy attachments to others, or because