If the toddler is able to explore with certain boundaries, the toddler will most likely develop a sense of self-sufficiency. On the other hand, if the parents are never satisfied with the toddler’s effort and are overprotective, the toddler may develop a lack of confidence and shame (Romero).
At this stage in a child development, their peers will a greater influence on them and will become a major source of their self-esteem. The child need to get the approval by achieving their goals that, they believed are valued by society continues to grow and they begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments. In stage if children are encourage reinforcing their initiative stage, they will begin to feel industrious and feel more confident in their own abilities to reach goals that they have set. However, is a child initiative stage is not encourage and is restrictive by either parents or teachers the child will begin to develop feeling of being inferior and begin to doubt their own abilities, this will cause them not to reach their full potential. During this stage parents and teacher should show support on the child accomplishments (McLeod,
My parents often took to the authoritative style, which is known currently as the most successful approach. The authoritative parent is involved in their child’s life and is accepting as well as sensitive to their needs. Sometimes, I could see my parents as being authoritarian, which is common because many parents find a kind of medium between these two styles. Unlike authoritative, the authoritarian
Would you have come out different if your parents used a different parenting style? If you are considered “cool” now could you have come out a nerd if your parents would have used a different parenting style? “Parenting style is one of the primary determinants of your child’s outcome whether he succeeds, achieves, meets the challenges, flounders, gives up, or runs from or fails in handling life.” (6) The purpose of this paper is to describe the outcomes, processes, labor, and techniques of parenting in a psychological point of view. Parenting styles are defined as the “manner in which parents express their beliefs on how to be a good or bad parent.” (4) Each parenting style has its weaknesses and
There are three main types of parenting styles: authoritative, permissive, and authoritarian. There have been many studies conducted in an attempt to gain insight on the efficacy of the parenting styles aforementioned. Studies have found each of the respective types has varying parenting philosophies and effects on the children they are used on. Authoritative parenting is often regarded as the best parenting style and it is characterized as high in warmth and high in control. Authoritarian tends to produce negative results in children, as it is characterized as being low in warmth and high in demand (Sartaj & Aslam, 2010). Permissive parenting yields the worst effect for the outcome of children, characterized by high in warmth and low in control (Aldhafri, 2011). Factors such as culture and child behavior can affect parenting styles but parenting styles influence factors such as academic self-efficacy, behavior and social skills in children, so it is important for parents to be mindful of which style they use. Because of these factors my parents have taken on an authoritative parenting style, which has cultivated
How adults respond to this is and to the exploring behavior will determine to some extent the child’s adult behavior(Gonzalez-Mena, 2009). Feeding themselves is one of the beginning lessons of preschool educators. Some families, based on culture, may find this a difficult task. Helping the family to recognize this is an important part of child development and working through the issues together will help to attain the goal of self feeding. Once the baby becomes mobile even bigger issues can arise. The main goal of this stage is to help the families set up a safe place for baby to explore in, after all this is what this stage of development is all about. When children are restricted to extremes, they loose their curiosity, their willingness to take risks, and their drive to be independent of others and do things for themselves(Gonzales-Mena, 2009). Toilet training falls within this category as well. Remembering to honor the values of each family will help to have a more successful result of developing self-help skills. After effectively working through self-help skill development, the next category will be to work on empowerment.
Unlike the first two stages, I have specific memories from my childhood in this stage. According to Swartwood (p. 84), “Children at [the initiative versus guilt] stage love to initiate activities and are constantly moving from one task to another.” While caregivers can have limited time and energy to dedicate to these tasks, they must be careful when denying or discouraging a request. They must be conscious of how the child perceives the situation, for they can be left feeling as if they are a burden to their caregivers and foster feelings of guilt (Swartwood, p. 84). Ultimately, caregivers “who are sensitive to a child’s need to initiate activities help [the child] understand the practical limitations of daily life”(Swartwood, p. 84).
Once a child reaches toddlerhood autonomy begins. One of the signs of developing autonomy is self-help skills. If a child is deprived the ability to do things for themselves they lose their determination to be independent. There are five major types of self-help skills: eating, dressing, grooming, household skills, and toileting. Parents can encourage developing self-help skills by providing opportunities to develop the skills, model self-help, give appropriate feedback, and allow time for a child to perform a task themselves. When allowing a child feed themselves be sure the food it cut into bit sized pieces, just be aware that some foods are a choking hazard. Cutting hot dogs in to strips rather than circles can prevent the choking hazard. Allow children to drink out of their own sip cup with two handles that can be easily held. Next allow a child to dress or undress themselves. Sometimes it can be easier for a child to begin with undressing themselves. Allow a child to take off his/her own clothes. Allow a child to practice dressing skill on a doll this can help when it’s time for a child to do it themselves. Allow a child a brush their teeth, comb their hair, wash and dry hands, and wash themselves in the bath. You can promote these self-help skills by giving the child their own washcloth, toothbrush, or comb while having another one to assist if needed. Teaching self-help
The successful upbringing of a child is contingent to parents giving both adequate encouragement along with child independence. Studies have illustrated the positive effects of childhood autonomy, which includes more motivation in infants as well as observing children to be better adjusted to social and educational situations (Joussemet et al., 2008). With compelling evidence, a parenting style is one that accounts for a child’s developing sense of agency while providing the necessary
Previously, I was aware that infants require a relationship with their caregiver in order to be healthy. Infants are not able to provide themselves with their basic needs, but they also require a secure attachment to be mentally sound. In the past, we theorized that allowing infants to cry without providing them attention, or only allowing a wet nurse to care for them, increased their ability to be self-reliant later in life. Now, we understand that individuals who are self-reliant are able to be independent because they have their emotional and physical needs met. According to Erikson once children have established trust, they can feel secure enough to develop autonomy. This means that the Victorian era concept of refusing care for infants is not the most effective parenting tactic.
There are four parenting styles that affects a child’s development, which are: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and uninvolved. Out of these four categories, my parents were classified under the authoritarian style of parenting. Although my parents showed their affection and their support, one of the biggest factors that made them authoritative was the inability to communicate or express any of their thoughts, feelings, or needs. Their dual employment was an issue because there was little involvement during my childhood of being the middle child. However, because they were often under financial stress, there were more criticisms, demands, and punishments for my unwanted behavior without any explanations. They never took the opportunity to explain these type of experiences to help me grow and mature, thus exhibiting the “do it because I said so” attitude. Incoming freshmen year, when I started to explore my surroundings more by driving to distant places and hanging out with different people, their parenting style became more problematic than it ever did. It heightened my behavior to be even more rebellious, defiant, and angry at how they tried to resolve the
At 12 years old my daughter experienced changes in her sleep-wake cycle. She began to have trouble getting to sleep, she slept in late on the weekends and was lacking in energy. Her body also started to change. She had previously been long and lean when she was 10-11. At 12 she started to gain fat around her hips and breast propelling her into her adult body shape. (Manis 2014). It is said to me normal for adolescents to have their sleep pattern change. They stay up later while still needing about 9 hours of sleep which can lead to grogginess and altered mental state. Nameste is withing normal findings of a pubescent female. Females start to show secondary sexual characteristics, such as breasts and pubic hair, between the ages of 8-15. (Berk
Support is a key issue in this stage as well. If parents and preschool teachers encourage and support children's efforts, while also helping them make realistic and appropriate choices, children develop initiative- independence in planning and undertaking activities Without support, a sense of guilt can develop and follow through the rest of the stages until the conflict is dealt with. But if, instead, adults discourage the pursuit of independent activities or dismiss them as silly and bothersome, children develop guilt about their needs and desires.
During my early childhood, I had both of my parents and grew up with three other siblings from a different Father. Both of my parents were born in Belize in Central America. I was born in New York. They instilled many thoughts, ideas and traditions of the Belizean culture. My mother had an authoritarian style of parenting meanwhile my Father had an authoritative style of parenting. Looking back at it, it made sense because I was closer to my Father than my Mother. My Mother was the one to always saying “No” to everything and my Father was stern but we had a great relationship.
Third, my parents’ parenting style influenced strongly what I am now. They had democratic parenting style. Therefore, I could discuss with my parents even something which they did not want me to do. Also, they set some reasonable rules which I should follow, and whenever they made rules they explained me why they made such rules. They advised me when I was depressed; however, they have never forced me what to do. Throughout my experience with my parents, I could understand the importance of independence and taking responsibility of my choice. Also, because they did not force their opinions, I could develop my own identity without many conflicts.