A Report From 179 Counsellor Participants From The Northeast, Mid Atlantic And Northwest America

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The study drew its findings from 179 counsellor participants from The Northeast, mid-Atlantic, mid-south and Northwest America. Of these participants, 60.4% identified as women, 37.4% identified as men and 2.2% was missing data. The sample was predominantly heterosexual (81.9%), with 6% identifying bisexual, 9.3% gay or lesbian and 2.7% not responding. Potentially, these percentages might be said to present a gender and a sexual orientation bias within the study. However, the gender bias could be said to be to be proportionately representative of the lower ratio of male to female counsellors (Carey, 2011), but this rationale is not explored by the authors. Neither do the authors account for the percentage of heterosexual to GLB…show more content…
The study was of a quantitative research design, utilising a randomised postal survey format. The advantages of randomised surveys in quantitative social science research is described by Sieber (2012) as the production of unbiased statistical measurements that allow the researcher to observe unique outcome variants within the findings. The authors acknowledge that although an effort was made to have geographic diversity and randomisation, that this study was however limited by participant availability. Also, the authors note that comparisons between where surveys had been mailed directly to an individual counsellor and to an organisation had not been explored to see if this had made a difference.

The survey included:
• A demographic/background questionnaire looking at demographics, experience, training and environmental factors.
• An affirmative counsellor 's behaviours scale, assessing the degree to which counsellors report engaging in affirmative behaviours towards GLB clients. This is a 5 point, self-rating, Likert scale based upon Bieschke and Matthews (1996) scale of affirmative behaviours.
• A Nonheterosexist Organisational Climate, 5 point, self-rating, Likert scale which assesses the organisational climate in which the counsellors work for affirmative attitudes and behaviours. Again, this was adapted from Bieschke and Matthews (1996).
• An attitudes towards Lesbians and Gay Men 9 point self-rating Likert-type
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