A Research Study On Anxiety Disorders

1386 Words Oct 29th, 2016 6 Pages
Introduction

Genetics
Anxiety disorders are the result of a combination of environmental and biological factors. While environmental factors are related to a person’s upbringing and experiences, biological factors are related to a person’s genetic makeup, brain chemistry, and inborn personality style. Anxiety disorders are 2-3 times more prevalent in girls than boys, and research has found that having an anxiety disorder early in life predicts an anxiety disorder later in life. Research has shown that having a first-degree relative, such as a parent or sibling, who has an anxiety disorder increases an individual’s risk for anxiety disorders by 4-6 times more than people who do not have a first degree relative with anxiety. Monozygotic twin studies have shown a heritability estimate of 30-50%. However, this estimate may be lower depending on the specific type of anxiety disorder.
Several genetic heterogeneities for anxiety disorders have been identified including a variant of the transmembrane protein 132D (TMEM132D gene), monoamine oxidase A enzyme variant, and polymorphic region in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) which can have a short or long allele. The TMEM132D gene is a protein on the cell surface of a neuron which has a genetic variant that has been linked to problems with threat processing and anxiety. There is a genetic variant of monoamine oxidase A enzyme which has been linked to anxiety. Some research indicates there is an…
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