A Research Study On Cooperative Behavior

1129 Words Feb 19th, 2016 5 Pages
1.Introduction

Cooperative behaviour has been and may still be a mystery to psychologists and evolutionary theorists. Cooperation has an altruistic nature that benefits other people, not closely related, while it is detrimental to the person who is performing it (Trivers, 1971). Therefore, according to natural selection cooperation should have been disappeared long time ago, as it is not beneficial for short-term survival of the individual. However, altruistic cooperation is not always disadvantageous if the sacrifice is awarded in the future, it can be an evolutionary stable strategy. This type of altruism is known as reciprocal altruism, which can be as beneficial for helper as recipient. Reciprocal altruism can be viewed as symbiosis. Indirect reciprocity is one of the concepts that evolutionary theorists developed to explain how reciprocal altruism has evolved.
Nowak and Sigmund (1998) were the first who proposed image-scoring strategy as a mechanism of indirect reciprocity. Helping or refusing to help others in the group has an impact on player’s reputation that can be seen as the image-score on the screen. However, the problem with this strategy is individuals cannot wholly base their decision on image score and history of other player since refusing helps decrease their own score. A rational player will always help the other player to increase his or her own score. In order to over come this problem Wedekind and Milinski (2000) used a different game in which…
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