A Research Study On Pharmaceutical Compounds

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Continuous growth in population of the world has led to rapid increase in demand and competition for water. Also, Canada is one of the highest water users per capita in the world(Government of Canada). Therefore, removal of contaminates from water that threat the quality and integrity of water resources is an important issue and demands vast researches to be conducted in this field.
Pharmaceutical compounds, as one of the pollutants of water resources, are continuously emerging aquatic environment due to their extensive usage in human and veterinary medicines and this has become a scientific and social concern. Moreover, these compounds are only partially removed in waste water treatment plants (WWTPs); hence are entered to the treated outlet effluents of these systems (Lydia M. Barrett 2015, Jia, Y 2012). Antibiotics are one of the most important groups of pharmaceutical compounds and are extensively used for either prevention or treatment of disease (Hao Chen 2011). Occurrence of antibiotics in aquatic environment causes the development of antibacterial resistance bacteria and genes(Lydia M. Barrett 2015) that causes the normally effective antibiotics in use to not work well or fail completely(Vera Homem,2011). For instance, the Canadian Intensive Care Unit (CAN_ICU) conducted a survey on the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in intensive care units (ICUs) in 19 hospitals over the Canada. Their research revealed that about 20% of overall sampled bacteria
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