A Research Study On Sustainability

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1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Motivation As engineering evolves and changes over time, one concept remains crucial throughout and must always be considered. This concept is the idea of sustainability in engineering, as a large portion of the earths limited resources are required and utilised within the profession. Therefore, it has become a necessity over time that these resources be accounted for through technological advances and innovations, so that and is the basis and reasoning of all research conducted within this report. 2 Background and Literature Review 2.1 Introduction Phosphorus itself is fundamental to all life and is part of the backbone of DNA. It is essential in the process of photosynthesis to aid flora in…show more content…
Orthophosphate being a chemistry-based term referring to phosphate molecules within water that are independent from other constitutes (Spellman, 2014). These act as a form of biomass fuel and nutrient for biological matter. In turn, the production of bio mass results in the deposition of organic substances within the particular water body (Ruttenberg, 2015xxx). Aside from the naturally occurring phosphate within the environment, additional phosphate also arises due to human activity and requirements. In the past 60 years, environmental phosphate flow has quadrupled due to its mining for use in fertilizer, food preservatives, cosmetics and the production of detergents and industrial cleaning agents (Elser & Bennett, 2011). Additionally, human and animal waste has been found to contain varying forms of phosphate as studied by Gilmour et al. (2008), which looked into the contribution of phosphorus loads in domestic wastewater. 2.2.2 Biological Phosphorous Cycle As phosphorous cycles through the environment, it changes forms and alters in composition. Naturally beginning with phosphorous sediments present in rocks, it is released very slowly in an inorganic form into streams and waterways due to erosion and weathering (Department of Environment, 2005). It is then taken up by aquatic plant life due to its runoff and presence in water and converts to organic form. Marine animals then consume this
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