A Second Or Foreign Language Learner Needs For Gain Knowledge

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2.0 Introduction A second or foreign language learner needs to gain knowledge in and about the target language. In order to do that , one needs to know how to build morphemes into words and words into sentences (linguistic or grammatical competence). Yet, this knowledge is not the end of learning a language. While grammatical competence may be the essence of learning a new language; on its own, it is not enough. A learner also needs to know how to use that knowledge appropriately in a social context. One needs to know about speech act,(e.g., requesting, suggesting, arguing, etc.) and politeness (sociolinguistic or pragmatic competence). In addition to these competencies, other components are also required. A learner needs to know how to produce a largely cohesive and coherent text, either in writing or in speaking (discourse competence). As a learner might not understand the total underlying system of a language, s/he needs to know how to repair the breakdown of a conversation (strategic competence). In this chapter, I will define the term communicative competence, explain the difference between competence and performance, and shed light on four theories of communicative competence, -i.e., Chomsky 's theory, Hymes 's theory , Widdowson 's theory, and Halliday 's theory. In the second section, five frameworks of communicative competence will be focused on, i.e., Canale and Swain 's model, Bachman and Palmer 's model, Celce-Murcia 's framework, the common European framework
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