Diabetes is a disease where the body is unable to produce or use insulin effectively. Insulin is needed for proper storage and use of carbohydrates. Without it, blood sugar levels can become too high or too low, resulting in a diabetic emergency. It affects about 7.8% of the population. The incidence of diabetes is known to increase with age. It’s the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the US, and is the primary cause of blindness and foot and leg amputation. It is known to cause neuropathy in up to 70% of diabetic patients. Individuals with diabetes are twice as likely to develop cardiovascular disease. There are two types of diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a pandemic that affects millions of people. The growth rate of unrecognized pre-diabetes in America is expected to rise up to 52% by 2020 (Lorenzo, 2013). As the prevalence of diabetes increases, so will the complications and burden of the disease. One of the leading causes for cardiovascular disease, renal failure, nontraumatic lower limb amputations, stroke, and new cases of blindness is DM (Lorenzo, 2013).
The detection of T2DM can be difficult because the patient may or may not have many of the symptoms depending on how severe their case is. Many of the symptoms are very similar to those of type I diabetes making classification difficult. Some patients are found to have glucosuria upon routine urinalysis, which could lead to the diagnosis. Ketouria can also be detected but usually only occurs in only one forth of patients who have type II diabetes. Simple clinical features of T2DM can assist doctors diagnosing and classifying the disease. More than 85 percent of patients diagnosed are overweight or obese. A family history of type II diabetes is found in the majority of patients who are known to have T2DM. A skin condition known as aconthosis nigricans is also common and can be detected by routine physical examination. It is characterized by hyperpigmentation and a velvety texture caused by long-standing hyperinsulinism and usually is found around the neck, inner thighs, and antecubital areas (Nesmith 2001).
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) or Type 2 Diabetes is seen as a metabolic disease that is categorized by abnormally high blood glucose or hyperglycemia. Diabetes Mellitus is also formerly known as noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and is the most common form of diabetes that is seen. Insulin is a hormone that is supplied to the body that allows us to efficiently use glucose as fuel. When carbohydrates are broken down into sugars in the stomach glucose enters the blood circulation simulating the pancreas to release insulin in an appropriate amount to become used for energy. With diabetes mellitus the body does not properly make use of the insulin supplied for the body. This causes the pancreas to produced an extra amount if insulin which the body cannot keep up with, causing an imbalance to the blood glucose levels (American Diabetes Association, 2015). In the united states diabetes affects almost 29.1 million people, while the another 86 million people have pre-diabetes but do not know. It is also known as the 7th leading cause of death in the country in the recent years (MedicineNet.com, 2016). For a patient suffering from a chronic form of diabetes mellitus understanding how these mechanisms lead to the condition can be used as preventative measures. Potential consequences as well as the causes and clinical manifestations will ensure a better knowledge on the issue to monitor the condition.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 is an endocrine disorder that causes impaired use of carbohydrates while enhancing the use of proteins and lipids. This is called insulin resistance, in which the pancreas cannot make enough insulin to keep blood glucose levels normal, or the body is unable to use what is produced. The impairment causes blood glucose level to rise higher than normal. There is no cure for type 2 diabetes mellitus and it is life threatening when left untreated. Signs and symptoms of this disorder include vision changes, increased thirst, increased hunger, increased frequency of urination, stomach pain, nausea and vomiting, erectile dysfunction, and absences of mentruation. These can occur abruptly, or over a long period of time.
The signs of diabetes differ from the symptoms because signs are indicators of a problem, while symptoms can only be describing by what a person feels. I want to focus on type 1 and type 2 diabetes because it has been very common on my father’s side of the family. According to the International Diabetes Federation, some warning signs for type 1 & 2 diabetes are frequent urination, weight loss, lack of energy, and excessive thirst. But, there are also more signs that consist of blurred vision, numbness, and increased of hunger. At the same time, these signs can be absent or show just a little in some people.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a condition in the body that is related to a faulty metabolism. It means that the body’s metabolism is not functioning properly, which leads to adverse effects in the health. The food we ingest, gets broken down into blood sugar (glucose), which is what fuels our body in the form of energy. This converted glucose needs to enter our cells so that it can be used for energy and growth. And in order for the glucose to enter our cells, there needs to be insulin present, which the beta cells of the pancreas is responsible for producing. This hormone is responsible for maintaining glucose level in the blood. It allows the body cells to use glucose as a main
Diabetes, a chronic metabolic disorder, affects 9.3% of the U.S population. The prevalence is much higher in the population of age 65 or older, reaching 25.9%. It was the seventh leading cause of death in the U.S in 2010, evidenced by a total of 234,051 certificates including both underlying causes and contributing causes. Multiple factors contribute to the development of diabetes, although the exact pathogenesis is still undetermined. Patients with diabetes usually require a lifestyle change, diet modification, medication management, or even surgery to control symptoms or disease progression.
Diabetes insipidus is a condition where the release or response to the pituitary hormone vasopressin is not able to operate correctly. This results in large amounts of urine and it’s accompanied by dehydration and excessive thirst. Diabetes mellitus is a long lasting condition where the body does not make enough insulin to respond to the blood sugar levels that are taking place. This results in an abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates and elevated levels of glucose in the blood and urine. It is the most common of the two. Diabetes insipidus is a kidney disorder, does not cause a rise in blood sugar levels, and does not release glucose in the urine. While diabetes mellitus is a pancreatic disorder, causes a rise in blood sugar levels, and releases
Diabetes has many symptoms. The types of diabetes consist of: Type 1, 2, and gestational diabetes. There are many symptoms to diabetes such as: Thirst, frequent urination, uncontrollable hunger, unintended weight loss, unintended weight gain, irritable or changing mood swings, fatigue & weakness, and blurred vision. There are other symptoms, but these are the most common.
Diabetes insipidus is a disorder that causes an imbalance of water in the body because the kidneys are not functioning correctly (cite). It is caused by a lack of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) which prevents dehydration. Individuals with this disorder produces excessive urination and polydipsia (cite). Although diabetes insipidus and mellitus sound related, they are not. Diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2 are more common forms of diabetes (cite). To diagnose diabetes insipidus, a doctor could use the fluid /water deprivation test or an MRI scan. The fluid/water deprivation test involves allowing an individual to reframe from drinking fluids for a number of hours to become extremely dehydrated while collecting blood and urine samples. An MRI scan of the head can be used to observe abnormalities in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland (cite).
fats and proteins increases. Type 2 DM patients have characteristics of age usually greater than 30years, they are obese and though they have plasma insulin normal to high, they have reduced insulin sensitivity with high glucose, high glucagon and so they require weight loss and anti-diabetics like insulin or oral hypoglycemics. Clinical characteristics of type 2 DM are shown in table 1.
Diabetes Mellitus is “a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. It is a disease which is caused by the insufficient insulin secretion or decrease in the peripheral effects of insulin. It is a serious problem in terms of morbidity and mortality. The hyperglycemia is associated with long term damage, dysfunction and failure of various organs especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and blood vessels. It’s associated with many complications which includes blindness of the eyes and amputations of the extremities. It is also associated with neuropathy, retinopathy, and cardiovascular diseases which lead to mortalities.
The etiology of the disease is found to be an autoimmune disorder. In this process, the body is attacking itself, and killing off beta cells which secrete insulin in the pancreas. Once a majority of the beta cells have been destroyed, there is an insulin deficiency. Insulin is needed to move glucose from the blood stream into cells and is vital for many body tissues, because it is their energy source. In the absence of insulin, the body breaks down fat and protein to provide energy and resorts to other hormones to make glucose form other sources. This causes an increase in lipolysis, which is the breakdown of triglycerides to glycerol and free fatty acids; increased ketogenesis, which is the formation of ketones from free fatty