A Short Note On Emphysema, The Irreversible Enlargement Of The Acini

1286 Words6 Pages
Megan Kehn
Delta College
April 15, 2015

Pathophysiology Emphysema is the irreversible enlargement of the acini that includes the destruction of the walls of the alveoli without apparent fibrosis (Huether & McCance, 2012). The alveolar septa is destroyed which then amplifies the amount of air in the acinus. Inhalation of pulmonary irritants such as cigarette smoke and certain environmental pollutants is thought to lead to the hindering of the endogenous antiproteases and stimulate inflammation with the increased activity of the proteases. With This results in the destruction of the aveoli and decline in the elastic recoil of the bronchi. When alveoli are damaged it leads to a decrease in the surface area available
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There are numerous factors that increase the possibility of developing COPD, including occupational and environmental exposure to chemicals, dusts, and pollutants, alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency and cigarette smoking. When cigarette smoke is inhaled the particles enter the lungs and create an inflammatory response. In response to the inflammation, macrophages and neutrophils penetrate into the lung and release cytokines, chemokines and elastases which destroy the lung parenchyma. Objective manifestations of emphysema include barrel chest, accessory muscle use, diminished breath sounds, and wheezing on auscultation. Subjective manifestations consist of patient complaints of wheezing, persistent cough, anorexia, dyspnea, weight loss, chest tightness and fatigue. Dyspnea is a progressive manifestation that begins with exertion and eventually leads to dyspnea at rest (Lewis, Dirksen, Heitkemper, Bucher, & Camera, 2011).

Client Overview
My patient J.R., was a 76 year old Caucasian female who presented to the emergency department on February 23, 2015 with complaints of worsening dyspnea at rest, shortness of breath and hypoxia. Her past medical history is pertinent for coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, angina, COPD, congestive heart failure, hypothyroidism, arthritis, hypertension, deep vein thrombosis, and diabetes mellitus. J.R. 's surgical history includes right carotid artery
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