Neoplasia- Means “New Growth”. Neoplastic growth proliferate (process of cell division) to form new tissue; There is no waiting for signals from the body that new tissue is needed; The ignore signals to stop dividing; They do not mature normally (differentiate), to do the job the tissue is supposed to do. They do not die off (apoptosis), to keep the number of total cells constant. Normally cells produced=to number of cells that die
parenchyma cells stimulate the formation of an abundant collagenous stroma, referred to as desmoplasia. Some tumours e.g. some cancers of breast are stony hard or scirrhous. Sarcomas have little connective tissue stroma and so are fleshy. Pseudo tumours: i) An ectopic rest of normal tissue is sometimes called a choristoma e.g a rest of adrenal cells under the kidney capsule or a pancreatic nodular rest in the mucosa of the small intestine may mimic neoplasm.
Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNA) are endogenously produced short non-coding regulatory RNAs that can repress gene expression by posttranscriptional mechanisms. They can therefore influence both normal and pathological conditions in diverse biological systems. Several miRNAs have been detected in kidneys where they have been found to be crucial for renal development and normal physiological functions as well as significant contributors to the pathogenesis of renal disorders such as diabetic nephropathy
Chapter 1 ELO’s Describe the basic functions of living organisms. A. Responsiveness – organisms respond to changes in their immediate environment (long term changes is adaptability) B. Growth – over a lifetime, organisms grow larger through an increase in size or number of cells. Differentiation is when cells have specialized functions C. Reproduction – Organisms reproduce, creating subsequent generations of similar organisms D. Movement – Organisms are capable of movement
pathogenesis and treatment methods (Mikuls 2012). Relationship of increase RA incidence with smoking is reported widespread in literature (Fisher 2012, Klareskog 2008, Sugiyama 2010, Mahdi 2009). Interaction occurs between two copies of HLA-DR SE specific genes and smoking; specific citrullinated protein antigens are induced by cigarette smoke which increases likelihood of RA. This causes a 21-flod increase risk of RA in comparison to non-smokers (Klareskog 2006). Furthermore, literature dictates that peripheral
Do more, feel better, live longer GlaxoSmithKline Annual Report 2010 Contents Business review P08–P57 Governance and remuneration P58–P101 Financial statements P102–P191 Shareholder information P192–P212 Business review 2010 Performance overview Research and development Pipeline summary Products, competition and intellectual property Regulation Manufacturing and supply World market GSK sales performance Segment reviews Responsible business Financial review 2010 Financial position and resources