A Short Note On Functions And Functions Of Many Genes During Inflammation, Immune, And Immune Cell Differentiation Effects Essay

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IRF-1/7 Function: IRF-1 has antiviral, immunomodulatory, apoptotic, and immune cell differentiation effects. Experiments in IRF-1 knockout mice have demonstrated that IRF-1 is a key regulator of macrophage function, NK cell response, Th1/Th2 differentiation, and DC differentiation (94-97). IRF-1 is involved in the regulation of many genes during inflammation, immune responses, and cell proliferation. IRF-1 interacts with both IRF-2 and IRF-8 as an antagonist. IRF-2 is an antagonist that represses IRF-1 function by competing for IRF-1 binding sites, and IRF-8 inhibits IRF-1 function by directly binding to it (98, 99). IRF-7 is considered the “master” regulator of type I IFN signalling due to its role in providing the second stronger wave of type 1 IFNs. Honda et al. showed that in mice deficient in the IRF-7 gene that IRF-7 is required for the initiation of IFN-α/β genes by the MyD88-dependent pathway and the MyD88-independent pathway (10). It has been reported that IRF-7 is expressed at low levels in most cell types (78). The low levels of IRF-7 expression suggest that IRF-3 is mainly responsible for the initial induction of IFN, where IRF-7 is responsible for the later up regulation (78). This suggests a positive feedback loop where IRF-7 induced IFN expression is involved in the second and larger IFN induction step, which allows for efficient upregulation of type I IFNs during viral infection (78, 100, 101). IRF-7 expression is tightly regulated to prevent excessive tissue

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