A Short Note On Obstructive Pulmonary Disease And Its Acute- Exacerbation

1790 WordsMay 2, 20178 Pages
Case study on chronic- obstructive pulmonary disease and its acute- exacerbation Introduction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of lung disease that is characterized by the airflow obstruction that could be caused by either chronic bronchitis or emphysema or by both conditions (Lewis, 2013). This airflow- obstruction may gradually progress to partially reversible COPD condition (GOLD, 2010). If a COPD patient is exposed to any of the risk factors as cigarette smoking, respiratory infection, etc and even though if he is in effective collaborative management, acute exacerbations of COPD may occur leading to life threatening circumstances. In regard to Mr. Bill McDonald who is a 65 years old man and known case of COPD…show more content…
This inflammation may cause multiplication of bronchiolar cells with goblet cells (hyperplasia) especially the mucous producing glands. Hence, these cells may start producing excess of mucus in the bronchioles. Because of excessive production of mucus as well as hyperplasia of the bronchiolar cells, the air- way diameter may gradually reduce leading to the obstruction of air-way with poor mucus clearance. This has caused chronic coughing in Bill who is a chronic smoker. Chronic cigarette smoking can minimize the movements of cilia gradually resulting in poor mucus clearance from air- way causing sputum accumulation. Chronic accumulation of sputum causes multiplication of micro- organisms in it resulting in infections of bronchioles and formation of purulent sputum. This has resulted in features of chronic coughing with production of excessive purulent sputum (Barnes, 2014). This recurrence of bronchiolar infections can induce the release of more number of neutrophils as well as macrophagial cells, which will in- turn releases some proteolytic- enzymes. These enzymes will destroy the alveolar cells resulting in inflammation, mucosal edema with severe infection that again releases excess of exudates (Hinkle, 2014). This may lead to recurrent bronchiolar-infections which will in- turn results in excessive
Open Document