A Short Note On Opioid Control And Opioid Controlled Drug

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Diamorphine is used for pain control and known as an opioid Controlled Drug [CD], acting by blocking pain signals to the brain (BNF, 2015; NICE, 2016). Opioid medication is licenced for the management of moderate to severe pain however, long-term use can cause reliance of the drug yet when used to treat a terminal illness, there are no restrictions (Knott, 2013; Nice, 2016). Morphine’s most common side effects include nausea and vomiting, sedation, constipation, hypotension and sweating however, it can cause hallucinations which are important in the management of anxiety in palliative care (Everyday Health, 2016; Mann & Carr, 2009). Diamorphine causes less nausea and hypotension than morphine and the focus in palliative care is pain management which is more effective when avoiding pain, than in the relief of pain (Cancer Research UK, 2015). Levomepromazine is Prescription Only Medication [POM] usually known as an antipsychotic drug {tranquillizer} however, it can also be used as an antiemetic drug to control nausea and vomiting (BNF, 2015; NHS Scotland, 2014). There are many antiemetic drugs used to treat nausea and vomiting however, some work on the brain by stopping the stimulation of the vomiting centre, whilst others work on the gut emptying the stomach contents at a faster rate (Macmillan Cancer Support, 2013). An antiemetic drug is chosen according to the causes of the vomiting and in Jacobs’s case it is a known side effect of taking Diamorphine. The most common side

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