A Short Note On The Air Leak Syndrome

1199 Words Jun 28th, 2015 5 Pages
Air Leak Syndrome is a term used to describe a collection of similar pathologies related to air being in pulmonary, pleural and interstitial spaces. The most common cause of air leak syndrome in neonates is inadequate mechanical ventilation of their delicate lungs. The incidence of air leaks in newborns is inversely related to the birth weight of the infants, especially in infants suffering from respiratory distress syndrome and meconium aspiration (Walsh, 2015). Chest tube drainage and/or needle aspiration are necessary in managing pneumopericardium with cardiac tamponade or tension pneumothorax.
To prevent air leak syndrome, gentle ventilation with low pressure, low tidal volume, low inspiratory time, high rate, and judicious use of positive end expiratory pressure are the keys to caring for mechanically ventilated infants (Jeng, 2012). Either high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) or high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) are able to accomplish these strategies. However, there is no definitive clinical evidence that these modes actually reduce air leaks.
Air leak syndrome (also called air block syndrome) is defined as that phenomenon when air escapes from the tracheobronchial tree and collects in various body spaces where it is not normally present (Jeng, 2012). The air that escapes travels to various locations in the body, leading to different types of air leaks such as:
• Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema
• Pneumomediastinum
• Pneumothorax
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