A Short Note On Thyroid And Parathyroid Glands

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1 Stacey Raposa October 11,2014 Module IV Assignment Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands Thyroid The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland with two lobes, one on each side of the trachea, below the level of the larynx. These lobes are connected by a narrow piece of tissue called the isthmus (Johnstone, Farley, Hendry, & McLafferty, 2014). The thyroid consists of follicles, which contain follicular cells that synthesize and secrete the thyroid hormones. These hormones are tetra-iodothyronine or thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyronine (T3) and calcitonin. The main function of the thyroid gland is to control the body’s metabolic rate; however in children it also controls growth and development (Warren, 2014). The thyroid gland is controlled by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which is secreted by the pituitary gland (Warren, 2014). These hormones are produced by an endocrine feedback loop that allows the body to control their release according to need (Hall, 2010). The hypothalamus, which synthesizes and secretes Thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH), initiates this loop (Hall, 2010). These hormones can be measured in the blood and are important in diagnosing and managing thyroid disease. Thyroid disease is seen in three forms: under activity (hypothyroidism), over activity (hyperthyroidism) and swelling of the thyroid. Thyroid disease is one of the most common disorders of the endocrine system and is more common in women than men. Hypothyroidism

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