A Student Questions : Take Home Exam

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Bio 5309 Graduate Student Questions Take Home Exam 1 Fall 2016 Question There’s a lot of excitement these days about a type of cellular immunotherapy known as CAR-T, a method of modifying peoples’ immune cells to fight cancer. But you could also fill a book listing all the problems its makers will have to solve—how to test, manufacture, and even the define the nature of these cancer-killing cells—before the CAR-T story is a successful one. Is the following statement true or false? Why? “The cells that are delivered back into the patient are not what ends up doing the bulk of the therapeutic work.” INTRODUCTION The genetic modification and characterization of T-cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) allow functionally distinct T-cell subsets to recognize specific tumor cells. The incorporation of costimulatory molecules or cytokines can enable engineered T-cells to eliminate tumor cells. CARs are designed in a modular fashion and generated by fusing the antigen-binding region of a monoclonal antibody (mAb); extracellular target-binding domain to a transmembrane domain and intracellular-signaling domains. They have shown clinical benefit in patients treated with CD19-directed autologous T-cells. Recent successes suggest that the modification of T-cells with CARs could be a powerful approach for developing safe and effective cancer therapeutics (Dai et al 2016). Chemotherapy and radiation have been used for treatment of cancer since long time but many of the
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