A Study Area Is The Region Of The U.s. Lake

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A study area is the region of the U.S. Lake States, including Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. In the region, about 27% of the estimated 20.8 million people reside in rural areas. Over 96% of the lands are considered as rural areas. Traditionally, the region had economically dependent on natural resource extraction and related low-skill manufacturing industries (Hamilton et al., 2008). However, such industries are recently weakened by globalization and rising policies on protection of natural resources. Consequently, tourism-based industries that depend on managed public lands not only protecting natural resources, but also providing recreational opportunities have been considered as important alternatives for local economic growth. Thus, an investigation of the relative impacts of economic structures on income distribution can broaden our understanding of the role of each economic industry in the distributional aspects of gateway communities.
There is no definitive way to define the gateway communities. In this study, I partly follow a method for “Sphere of Influence” of gateway communities suggested by the M3West study (Hester, 2013). He used a travel distance that is measured by predefined buffer distance for recreational commuting from gateway communities to public lands. Thus, I first collect public land data (see figure 1). Then, I use a sensitivity analysis to select an appropriate travel distance for recreational commuting based on 5, 10, and 15 mile buffer. From

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