A Study Of Public Administration

1516 Words Aug 18th, 2016 7 Pages
Since Woodrow Wilson (1889) published the article, “a study of public administration”, the main question in the field of public administration is how to govern a democratic and political entity. Given public administration conventionally concerns about civil servants and agencies in the executive branch, one among diverse and essential subfields is bureaucracy and organizational theory. In general, the development of studies on bureaucracy and organizational theory has gone through the period of classical theory to modern theory, and from modern theory to the advent of post-modernism and post-positivism. After historically reviewing the growth of knowledge on this subfield, forces behind the progress are the product of countless and …show more content…
For scientific management, the founding father is Frederick Taylors (1912) who employed scientific methods, like natural science, to measure working loadings and should-be working times for increasing efficiency and developing a fair payments systems. Under his guidance, Gulick (1937) and Urwick (1945) make efforts to propose several principles of organizational operations and design. The most famous one would be POSDCORB introduced by Gulick. On the other hand, Elton Mayor (1930), as conducting the Hawthorne experiment, found the benign presence of researchers would boost productivities, instead of changes in facilities in factories. Chester Barnard (1938) argued that organizations are cooperative system maintaining the dynamic balances between the needs of the organization and its employees. With respect to the need of employees, Maslow came up with the need hierarchy. That is, only when the basic need is met, people can be motivated to pursue another need, such as safe or self-actualization, at the higher level.

The second one is a political viewpoint used in organizational studies. Max Weber (1922) regarded the ideal type of bureaucracy as a rational tool if it was employed in an appropriate way. At the same time, he worried about this “iron cage” might confine the free will of the individuals due to the practice of discipline. As a result, bureaucratic control and accountability in later become one eminent topic.

In the interwar period
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