A Study On Seismic Wave

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CHAPTER -2
REVIEW OF LITRETURE
2.1 Introduction
Most of today’s producing naturally fractured reservoirs were discovered accidentally, they were found by somebody who are looking for some other type of reservoir. Significant volume of hydrocarbon resides in these reservoirs. But these are abandoned particularly in fields because improper testing and evolution or because the wells did not intersect the natural fractures (Aguilera, 1998). Attempts have been made to quantify properties of such reservoir (Chaki et al., 2014). It has been long recognized that the presence of naturally occurring fracture network can lead to unpredictable heterogeneity and anisotropy within many reservoirs. In past geophysicists acquired and processed P-wave reflection data at short offset, which automatically implied relatively small angular ray coverage. So seismic anisotropy, which is defined as directional dependence of elastic properties of earth remains unnoticed. But with the advance of methodologies, acquiring long offset and multi-component data become feasible and cost effective, anisotropy showed up. Seismic wave propagation in heterogeneous medium is discussed by Chabak et al., 2012. On a smaller scale, stresses in the Earth can cause rock to fracture in a consistent manner. If these fractures are aligned, the rock will be anisotropic with the fast direction parallel to the fractures and the slow direction perpendicular to them. In ideal cases, these observations can provide
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