A Study On Sickle Cell Disease

1785 Words Apr 20th, 2015 8 Pages
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Sickle Cell Disease
Sickle Cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin is produced in red blood cells. The body creates sickle red blood cells, which are crescent shaped instead of the typical round shape. This shape of the sickle cells are stiff, as well as stick and because of this they tend to block blood flow in the blood vessels of the limbs and organs. This blockage will cause pain and organ damage, as well as serious infection. (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [NHLBI], 2014.). Sickle Cell Disease is also known as sickle cell anemia and Hemoglobin SS Disease.
According to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) there is an estimate of 70,000-100,000 Americans who are affected with SCD. (NHLBI, 2014). This disease predominantly affects African Americans, as 1 out of every 500 African Americans are diagnosed with SCD. SCD also affects people of Hispanic and Middle Eastern descent. Over 2 million American’s have the SCD trait, specifically 1 out of 12 African Americans can found with the gene. In 2005, there were 31,000 children with SCD in the United States (National Newborn & Genetics Resource Center, 2005).

Since SCD is a disorder in which red blood cells are rigid and sickled shape, rather than a flexible and round shape, meaning the solubility and malleability is significantly reduced. This causes an inability for red blood cells to bond and carry oxygen (vassooclusive events), which…

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