A Study On The Subject Matter Of Aq And Its Operations

1963 WordsSep 13, 20158 Pages
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter is a critical review of the literature on the subject matter of AQ and its operations. It is meant to locate the current study in the body of knowledge by establishing the extent to which this subject has been researched. Since a study is only as good as it is capable of contributing to the body of knowledge, it is imperative that the present study’s contribution to the body of knowledge is ascertained. Otherwise it is a study in vain. Origin and Ideology of AQ One of the issues widely covered in the literature is with regard to the origin of AQ as a terrorist organisation. The organisation known as Al-Qaeda became an international force after the attacks on the World Trade Centre and the…show more content…
1). The underpinning ideology of the AQ franchise originally developed out of the arrival of non-Muslim (Western) forces which deployed to the Middle East during and after the First Gulf War in 1990/91. The original aim of the organisation was to realise the repatriation of these forces from the Arabian Peninsula (Blanchard 2007). An underpinning ethos of the early incarnation of the organisation became known as ‘defensive jihad’ (Blanchard, 2007). A leader in the promotion of this jihadist rhetoric, Osama Bin Laden, promoted a belief that violence against the US and Saudi Arabia (the US hosts) was the only way to cleanse the Holy Lands. Bin Laden subsequently declared jihad on the US and Saudi Arabia, arguing that their presence in the country was an affront to the Islamic community (Blanchard, 2007). Bin Laden also called for a united front against the enemies of Islam. The resultant policies of this time, which later developed into ideologies also called for the restoration of the Caliphate as well as the removal of non- Muslims from the Holy Lands (Blanchard, 2007). Gunaratna (2005) argues that the AQ ideology is the largest motivating factor for any groups that seeks to become involved in belligerent jihad. Gunaratna argues that ‘al-Qaeda’s principle aim is to inspire and incite Islamist movements and the Muslim masses worldwide and to attack those perceived to be the enemies of Islam. Similarly, al Qaeda is constantly
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