A Study On Traumatic Brain Injury

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parindent{ }Traumatic brain injury is a significant health problem in the United States that is estimated to occur in 1.6-1.8 million persons annually (citealt{faul2010}). Diffuse axonal injury is %the most frequently occurring a common type of traumatic brain injury primarily characterized by damage to the axons (citealt{smith2000, Gennarelli1982}). An improved understanding of the pathophysiology of diffuse axonal injury is needed to develop improved diagnostic tools, protective measures and rehabilitation treatments(citealt{Giordano2014}). Many techniques have been developed to help elucidate the injury mechanism associated with diffuse axonal injury over years. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is one such technique where the mesoscale…show more content…
parindent{ }Tissue anisotropy plays a significant role in accurately predicting the extent as well as the location of the white matter damage (citealt{wright2012}). Table~ ef{tab:1} shows a list of finite element studies that included diffusion tensor imaging tractography in the injury analysis. Most of the studies (citealt{colgan2010, wright2012, wright2013, Kraft2012, sahoo2014, kleiven2014}) used a diffusion tensor imaging apprised anisotropic material models to represent brain tissue during the analysis. The axonal strains were then calculated using explicit post processing steps. These studies mapped multiple voxels from DTI data to a single element in the finite element model using an averaged fiber orientation/ fiber dispersion measure. To account for the effect of multiple fiber orientations per element, researchers used fractional anisotropy informed material models to represent brain tissue (citealt{wright2013,sahoo2014,kleiven2014}). However, calculating an averaged representation of fiber orientations and fiber dispersion values over multiple voxels might cause a loss of some axonal strain information and accuracy of the material model. %Therefore, there is a strong need to develop a robust methodology for constructing a 3D FE head model that can accommodate both the anisotropic response and high level of anatomical detail. At the same time, this should avoid the need for complex mapping schemes (mapping DTI
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