A Study On Traumatic Brain Injury

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parindent{ }Traumatic brain injury is a significant health problem in the United States that is estimated to occur in 1.6-1.8 million persons annually (citealt{faul2010}). Diffuse axonal injury is %the most frequently occurring a common type of traumatic brain injury primarily characterized by damage to the axons (citealt{smith2000, Gennarelli1982}). An improved understanding of the pathophysiology of diffuse axonal injury is needed to develop improved diagnostic tools, protective measures and rehabilitation treatments(citealt{Giordano2014}). Many techniques have been developed to help elucidate the injury mechanism associated with diffuse axonal injury over years. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is one such technique where the mesoscale structural information is studied to investigate the diffuse axonal injury. Finite element models have also provided a means to investigate diffuse axonal injury. Several finite element head models have been developed and reported in the literature (citealt{shugar1977,ward1980,hosey1982,Ruan1991,mendis1992,bandak1995,kang1997,al1999,Zhang2001,Kleiven2002,brands2002,takhounts2003,horgan2005,Kleiven2007,iwamoto2007,takhounts2008,panzer2012,mao2013,tse2014,cotton2015}). These models have demonstrated that over time, the structural resolution of the head models, including advancements in constitutive laws, anatomical resolution, and injury descriptions were improved. Previous studies have shown that the brain tissue is anisotropic
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