A Study of Mix Design of Concrete Hollow Blocks Using Crushed Powder Like Glass as Supplementary Aggregates

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Chapter I Introduction Concrete has been used in the construction industry for centuries. A typical concrete is a mixture of fine aggregate (sand), coarse aggregate (rock), cement, and water. Nowadays the usage of concrete is increasing from time to time due to the rapid development of construction industry.Today, there are many ways to enhance the quality and properties of concrete. One of the technological advances in improving the quality of concrete is Self-Consolidating Concrete. Self-Consolidating Concrete (SCC) has been described as "the most revolutionary development in concrete construction for several decades". Originally developed to reduce the need of skilled laborers for concrete filling in construction. It has proved…show more content…
Defects such as honeycombing and segregation caused by poor skill in construction work, particularly insufficient or over-vibration, are major causes of this. In cases where heavy reinforcement and the shape of the cross section is complicated that requires concrete fill, it is difficult to place concrete without defects with the normal level of labor skill. Professor Okamura (1986) proposed two alternative practical solutions for these problemsand as follows: 1. To establish a durable design method by comprehensive evaluation of material design and construction methods. 2. To develop a new vibration-free concrete, with which durable and reliable for structures can be easily constructed. This was the motivation fordeveloping self-compacting concrete. Hajime Okamura (1997) proposed the self-compacting concrete in 1986, but the latter prototype was developed by Professor Ozawa (1989) at the University of Tokyo in 1988. Self-compacting concrete is cast so that no additional inner or outer vibration is necessary for the compaction. The development of self-compacting concrete over the past years can be summarized as follows: (1)on Sept. 1986,Okamurainitiated his paper entitled, "Waiting for Innovation inConcreteMaterials"; (2)on Aug. 1988,Prototype concrete no.1 produced byOzawa;(3)demonstration to the construction industry at the University ofTokyo;Self-Consolidating Concrete (SCC)

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