A Study on the Existence of ‘Glass Ceiling’ Faced by Female Managers in Hotel Industry in Malaysia

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“A STUDY ON THE EXISTENCE OF ‘GLASS CEILING’ FACED BY FEMALE MANAGERS IN HOTEL INDUSTRY IN MALAYSIA ” LITERATURE REVIEW 1. Introduction There have been a number of market research surveys that states information on the barriers of women’s career in hotel industry. Three general areas of literature that are identified to be relevant to this study: definition of ‘’glass ceiling’’, the barriers of female managers in advancing to a higher level in their career in hotel industry and breaking through the ‘’glass ceiling which includes the factor of salary and promotion, social attitudes, work-family conflict, and training as independent variables. Whereby, capability of work, networking, morale support, and confidence and…show more content…
These factors emphasize on the male attitudes towards women as the “weaker sex” and that they were expected to work in certain areas for certain task only. In addition, (Frank, 2001) also indicate that for example that Chinese woman prefer a male manager. Living in Malaysia as a multiracial country, we agreed that it is true that not only the Chinese but in general that most of our people prefer a male than the female manager in working environment. In order to overcome this situation, the advantage of networking is possible. However the culture exists restrain the women managers from entertaining their business associates in private clubs or on the golf course. It is more known as the men’s field to suit this type of socializing. Because of such exclusion, women managers have limited opportunity to socialize with influential executives who could help their career development. According to Eight Malaysian Plan, Chapter four (Malaysian Economic Planning Unit), under employment, the legislators, senior officials and managers category is expected to register an average annual growth of 4.7 per cent with its share to total employment accounting for 7.8 per cent in 2005. This was due to the increasing demand for general managers, which as well hotel and restaurants subsector, of which general managers in lodging and catering services are accounted.

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