AP World History Chapter 15 Traditions and Encounters Study Guide

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I. Islamic and Hindu kingdoms
A. The quest for centralized imperial rule
1. North India
a. Tension among regional kingdoms
b. Nomadic Turks became absorbed into Indian society
2. Harsha (reigned 606-648 C.E.) temporarily restored unified rule in north India

B. Introduction of Islam to northern India
1. The Sind were conquered by Arab Muslims and passed to Abbasids
2. Muslim merchants formed small communities in all major cities of coastal India
3. Turkish migrants and Islam: Turks convert to Islam in tenth century
a. Some moved to Afghanistan and established an Islamic state
b. Mahmud of Ghazni, Turk leader in Afghanistan, made expeditions to northern India

4. The sultanate of Delhi (1206-1526 C.E.)
a. Mahmud's successors conquered north
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Islam and its appeal
1. Conversion to Islam occurred in a slow and gradual way
a. Some converted for improving their lower social statuses
b. Often an entire caste or subcaste adopted Islam en masse
c. By 1500, about 25 million Indian Muslims (1/4 of population)
2. Sufis
a. The most effective missionaries, they had a devotional approach to Islam
b. Permitted followers to observe old rituals and venerate old spirits
c. Emphasized piety and devotion
3. The bhakti movement
a. Sought to erase distinction between Hinduism and Islam
b. Guru Kabir (1440-1518), important bhakti teacher, taught that Shiva, Vishnu, and Allah were one deity

IV. The influence of Indian society in southeast Asia
A. The states of southeast Asia
1. Indian influence in southeast Asia
a. Indian merchants brought their faiths to southeast Asia
b. Ruling elite of southeast Asia adapted some Indian political traditions
c. The states sponsored Hinduism and Buddhism
d. Showed no interest in Indian caste system
2. Funan (first to sixth century C.E.) in the lower reaches of Mekong River (Cambodia/Vietnam)
a. Drew enormous wealth by controlling trade
b. Adopted Sanskrit as official language
c. Decline of Funan in sixth century
3. Srivijaya (670-1025 C.E.) was established on Sumatra after the fall of Funan
a. Maintained sea trade between China and India by navy
b. Chola kingdom of south India eclipsed
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