After reading Chapter 2 of Ronald J. Comer’s book, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, I now understand key principles of 4 models that that contribute to understanding abnormalities. The first model is the biological model, which can be linked to Roman and Greek times as I read in chapter 1. It mainly states that the cause of psychological abnormalities is that of physical illness. In addition, the abnormalities are introduced because of malfunctioning parts in the brain. This includes the possible malfunction of neurons that are found in the cerebrum and the possible malfunction of these neurons and the transmissions between them. Other factors may include genes, evolution and viral infections
Nevertheless, the term “mental disorder” is applied to a set of categories and classifications of abnormal human functioning. Millon (1969) grouped perspectives on mental disorders into four different categories. First, there are biophysical theories, which assume that physiological processes are the primary determining factors of psychopathology. Second, there are intrapsychic theories which assume that psychological factors determine abnormal psychological behavior. Third, there is phenomenological theory which talks about the unique experience and perception of each individual, and how that perception is lived out. Lastly, behavioral theories assume that the process of learning through reinforcement shapes pathology in the individual.
The studies of Abnormal Psychology are not only important but very helpful; one example is the researches that have been done on many life threatening disorders in order to find good medication for the people with these disorders. However, even though it is used as a form of treatment
Barlow, D., & Durand, V. (2015). Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach(Seventh ed.). Stamford, Connecticut: Cengage
Eight sane people were admitted into twelve different hospitals, where their diagnostic experiences would be part of the data of the first part of the article, while the rest will be devoted to a description of their experiences in psychiatric institutions. The patients were all very different from each other, three were women and five were men. Among them were three psychologists, one psychology graduate, a pediatrician, a housewife, a psychiatrist, and a painter. The ones that were in the mental health field were given a different occupation in order to avoid special attentions that might be given by the staff, as a matter of courtesy or caution. No one knew about the presence of the pseudopatients and the nature of the program was not known to any of the hospital staff. The settings were different as well. The hospitals were in five different states on the West and East coasts. Some were considered old and shabby and some were
This assignment will be analytically comparing and contrasting the Biological, psychodynamic and Behaviourist psychological perspectives. This will be based on their different explanations of human behaviour and the management of mental illness in relation to practical application.
There are a number of different approaches in contemporary psychology including; the behaviourist, cognitive, humanistic, physiological (or biological) and psychodynamic approaches (Eysenk, 2005, pp.171). A specific approach or perspective involves certain beliefs or assumptions about human behaviour; the way individuals function and which aspects of these functions are deemed worthy of study. (Glassman and Hadad, 2013). Alongside this, there may also be several theories within an approach but all share the described common assumptions. For the purpose of this essay the biological and cognitive approaches will be explored, compared and contrasted in relation to the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness, distress or maladaptive
The medical model of abnormal psychology treats mental disorders in the same way as a broken arm, i.e. there is thought to be a physical cause. Supporters of the medical model consequently consider symptoms to be outward signs of the inner physical disorder and believe that if symptoms are grouped together and classified into a ‘syndrome’ the true cause can eventually be discovered and appropriate physical treatment administered. Behaviors such as hallucinations are 'symptoms' of mental illness as are suicidal ideas or extreme fears such as phobias about snakes and so on. Different illnesses can be identified as 'syndromes',
In principle, psychopathology is the scientific study of mental disorders and their origin; in addition, this field of study examines the causes, development, and possible treatment for the disorders. Essentially, psychopathology encompasses three aspects that are considered as directly related to the mental disorders. These facets include the biological considerations, social issues, and psychological aspects of any mental condition. In fact, the initial perception of mental illness was associated with religious issues such
The medical model focuses on the molecular structure of drugs and indicators of mental or emotional disorders. However, the medical model is not effective treating mental and emotional disorders. The medical model indicts the notion that abnormal behavior is the product of physical problems and be treated medically. The medical model depends upon independent tests to demonstrate or contradict if a patient is ill. The psychological model uses tests to demonstrate or contradict whether a patient is ill. It is at this point of agreement that the two models separate. A restriction to the psychological model is if a patient that is unconscious, or their communication ability is compromised to the degree that they are
Chapter 3 During the Middle Ages some “authorities” classified abnormal behaviors into two groups, those that resulted from demonic possession and those due to natural causes. The 19th-century German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin was the first modern theorist to develop a comprehensive model of classification based on the distinctive features, or symptoms, associated with abnormal behavior patterns (see Chapter 1). The most commonly used classification system today is largely an outgrowth and extension of Kraepelin’s work: the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association. Why is it important to classify abnormal behavior? For one thing, classification is the core of science. Without labeling and organizing patterns of abnormal behavior, researchers could not communicate their findings to one another, and progress toward understanding these disorders would come to a halt. Moreover, important decisions are made on the basis of classification. Certain psychological disorders respond better to one therapy than another or to one drug than another.
Personality disorders are thought to be aided by family, as well as community influences. For example, a child who feels rejected or unwanted by a family member(s) will act out, taking his or her aggressions out in an unacceptable manner such as defying rules and regulations at school or within the community (Morris and Maisto, 2002).
Abnormal and clinical psychology are two branches in the field of psychological studies. In simple words, abnormal psychology can be defined as the study of people who engage in unusual behavior and emotional thoughts. These actions and thoughts are considered abnormal compared to those of other members of society, and they significantly interfere with their functioning in life. Clinical psychology goes hand in hand with abnormal psychology because it is the study that deals with the assessment and treatment of those abnormal actions. Learning about these branches of psychology can help us understand and predict behaviors of people who that are affected by these disorders. It is also essential to advance our knowledge to help assess the people who suffer these illnesses to lead a life of better quality. In this paper, a case study that entails a brief vignette of a 35 year old paralegal named Greg will be analyzed. According to concepts of abnormal and clinical psychology, Greg will be diagnosed with the psychological disorder of obsessive-compulsive disorder (more formally known as OCD) that might have originated in the anal stage of the psychoanalytic theory, for which cognitive behavioral therapy will be used as a possible treatment.
Abnormal behavior relates to the influence of psychological factors, biological factors as well as the social factors referring to inadequate relationships. In the face of diverse definition, abnormal behavior refers to the deviating from norm, which norm is the typical behavior or characteristic of the population. As such, Jim behavior is abnormal because it violates moral and conventional mores of the society (Violates societal standards), as such causing social discomfort to others. For instance, Jim fails to recognize the social cues in conversation thereby annoying other interlocutors. Jim is this case is behaving in a manner counterproductive to his own well being by
There are several models of abnormality in use today (Comer, 2009) lists “The Biological Model…”, “The Psychodynamic Model…”, The Behavioral Model…”, The Cognitive Model…”, The Humanistic-Existential Model…”, The Sociocultural Model…” (p.33). The biggest contrasts would be the Biological model, and the other models. Comparing the biological model, and the cognitive model will highlight those differences.