The concept of absolute power was established in the seventeenth century and was prominent in Europe and Russia. Absolute power enabled kings and queens to have complete authority and power over their people. The kings and queens believed that through divine right, God gave them their power to rule over their country, hence their power was unconditional. The idea of absolute monarchy was a solution to the problem of an unorganized society. When absolute monarchies were established they began to spread across Europe and Russia.
In 17th-18th century Europe, the age of absolutism, absolute monarchs ruled most of Europe. Absolute monarchs are rulers that have complete control over the government and its people. They claimed to rule by “divine right,” where their authority comes from God and they were above the law. The views of being a proper role as an absolute monarch differed very much between rulers and their subjects. Certain rulers had ideas that both the people and ruler should be united, some abused their power with no sympathy towards the people they rule, and the subjects that suffered from the rulings of the monarch had a completely different perspective than the rulers that were in power.
During the late 17th and early 18th century, many European nations such as France and Russia were absolute monarchies. Even countries such as England had kings who at least attempted to implement absolutism. Indeed the concept of absolutism, where the monarch is the unquestionably highest authority and absolute ruler of every element in the realm, is certainly appealing to any sovereign. However, this unrestricted power was abused, and by the end of the 18th century, absolutism was gone. Absolutism failed because the monarchs' mistreatment of the population caused the people to revolt against their rule and policies. There are many factors which caused this discontent. For one, there was a great loss of human lives. Louis XIV of France
The parliamentary system allowed kings to be more aware of the different regions and customs of the population, therefore allowing them to have more freedoms. Also, the gentry could advise the king on issues such as war and taxes so he would know what is unfair to the population, where if he was absolute, he could make whatever tax he wanted. Parliament also allowed for the separation of power into judicial and legislative branches, further strengthening the government because the two areas would not be headed solely by the monarch. Structures such as the Bill of Rights and the system of checks allowed constitutional monarchies to rule more efficiently at the end of the 17th century and on to the
Once the seventeenth century began, western civilization became based upon bounds. In a structured and shared-power system known as limited monarchy, rulers either became hastened within their bounds or exploded from them. As the British Isles were frustrated in the religious, political, and national voices going unheard, England developed a Protestant-run nation in conjunction with Scotland as a bounded country in 1707. Their Parliament would make their decisions, distribute the country’s wealth, and stand for the rights of individuals. The model of one man who could not be chained to a Parliamentary system was France’s King Louis XIV. His reign begins in 1643 which brings about the genuine definition of an absolute monarchy and it’s faults. Absolutism was a practice built heavily within the Middle Ages, it would include Kings as the primary shareholders of their land, partnerships with nobles and their Churches. It would prove unsatisfactory for most kingdoms as they failed under civil war and invasion until the seventeenth century shines a new importance on superior command. Through the strife of religious reformations and international conflicts, absolutism grants those in kingship unlimited power. King Henry IV had brought France from fifteenth century centralization and the Reformation’s civil war to cleanse the people’s doubt in their King. The Bourbons built a monarchy for the ages with their grandson Louis XIV, and Boy-King in 1643. Utilizing absolutism to accept
The 17th century of European history, colloquially known as the “Age of Crisis”, gave rise to a new form of government: absolutism. Religious wars, economic troubles, inflation, and new agricultural challenges such as the Little Ice Age wracked the nations of Europe and caused tremendous fear and uncertainty among the masses. Thus, as many felt that life itself was endangered, they were willing to accept the rise of a strong, independent ruler who might lead them from the darkness. In this way, absolutism emerged- a new form of monarchy based on a hereditary ruler with complete authority. Perhaps the most well known example of an absolute monarch in European history is Louis XIV, the ruler of France from 1643 to 1715.
Unlike Absolutist governments, which allowed for Kings like Louis XIV to spend on their own lavish lifestyles and palaces, constitutionalism ensured the no one leader in government was too powerful. In his The Spirit of Laws, Montesquieu advocated for a government where “the executive, legislative, and judicial powers” were separated from one another (Document 6). This idea, which is one of the building blocks of constitutionalism, ensured the interest of all citizens were being represented. In the English Revolution, the once Absolutist government gained a greater separation of powers. Parliament was given sovereignty over annual taxation, in addition to the implementation of national elections every two years. Unlike absolutist governments in France and Russia, This new distribution of responsibilities helped to keep the English Monarch from making decisions that didn’t best serve the interest of his people. Ultimately, in a societally imbalanced Europe, constitutionalism ensured a separation of powers in government that prevented corruption and ensured that citizens had greater representation within their
During the seventeenth century Europe witnessed two prominent forms of government, an absolutist and a limited/constitutional. Both governments were constructed through several key figures that were in control of the countries, some more stable than others. Although these key figures tried to dominate the government under absolute authority their control was still limited. Absolutists monarchies were trying to be established all over the country, unfortunately many of them failed due to various factors. Throughout the seventeenth century Europe rulers have tried to maintain an absolutist monarchy however society still found some holes in their power, which limited the ruler’s control.
The king looked to the Pope for guidance in difficult situations, seeking advice to handle angry veterans returning from the Thirty Years’ War. Persuaded by bishops, Charles reestablished congregations and restored church paintings and sculptures. Bishop Juxon took office as Treasurer, which was frowned upon by Charles’ Protestant people. Charles’ reign was largely influenced by the Duke of Buckingham, George Villiers. At first, Charles was jealous of the attention George received from Charles’ father, who treated George like a son, later on, however; they became close companions. George guided many of Charles’ decisions, including his calling off the marriage arrangement with a Spanish king’s sister. On June 18, 1625, Charles assembled Parliament for the first time during his reign to start funding for battle with Spain. Charles often went into negotiations with the mind set of his plan or no action at all. Because Parliament was
Absolutism, where there is a person who has full political power over a country, rose in the 17th century due to the increase in surplus, mercantilism and the standing armies. Due to the increase in surplus in these countries, the government had more money to spend. Mercantilism also contributed to the economic growth of countries that adopted it. The increased money from these meant increased funding for standing armies. The standing armies gave the king an army without needing to call on the nobles, thereby lessening their importance and power, and heightening the king’s.
This was mainly a result of tension between parliament and the king because parliament where trying to force Charles into listening to parliament but it was making the opposite affect by angering him that he did not want to listen to parliament.
Charles I grew up in parliament, learning about how it worked and participating in it. Deciding to rule without parliament seems uncharacteristic, especially since Charles spent much of his time learning about and working with it. The switch from working with parliament to dissolving several parliaments between 1625 and 1629 can be attributed to Charles’s heightened sense of responsibility and the notion that parliament was not upholding its own responsibility to govern the people. Charles attempted to break from parliament for a time in order to stabilize a country weakened by war by establishing an absolute monarchy, and failed to maintain the break because of a lack of money. In order to succeed in preserving his personal rule, Charles would
England’s lengthy history of hereditary monarchs and abusive absolutists has led to the system of constitutionalism in 17th century English government. The encouragement of these absolutism practices triggered the need to search for a new way to govern. The reigns of the Stuart monarchy led to the shift from absolutism to constitutionalism during 17th century England. After witnessing the success of Louis XIV's of France establishment of absolutism, England would soon see that James I, and his son Charles I, will fail at establishing absolutism in England and see a constitutional government established.
James whom was the side of England and the parliament were puritan. To make matter worse, James infuriated Parliament with his son’s marriage to catholic princess Queen Elizabeth. This resulted on commoners being upset over how the government should be ran.