To begin, chapters one through three introduce training and the basics of behavior by presenting many terms and concepts common in the behavioral field. For instance, Pryor explains, “A reinforcer is anything that, occurring in conjunction with an act, tends to increase the possibility that the act will occur again” (Pryor, 1999, p. 1). Following the identification of positive and negative reinforcers, the author continues building on the basics of training by identifying the importance of appropriate timing during reinforcement (Pryor, 1999 p. 7). Most interesting is the concept of delayed reinforcement, specifically the idea that it may have a punishing affect, such as the example of the belated compliment in appearance (Pryor, p. 8).
In applied behavior analysis behaviorists use techniques such as functional behavior assessment (FBA), to create functionally-based interventions that target maladaptive behavior. The goal of an FBA is to identify the conditions that predict behavior and the consequences that maintain behavior (Carr et al., 2002). If the link between antecedent, behavior, and consequence can be established, it will be possible to alter a behavior by changing its predictive stimuli and maintaining consequences (Bender, 2015). After forming this link by collecting data, a behavior intervention plan (BIP) will be created to diminish problem behavior (Bender, 2015). This BIP must target the function of the behavior and
Keeping in mind that identifying the variables that maintain problem behavior (reinforcement) is more affective for treatment selection (Mevers, Fisher, Kelley, and Fredrick, 2014), one common treatment for problem behavior is Noncontingent reinforcement. (Carr, Severston, & Lepper, 2009). NCR is used in combination with extinction for problem behavior and involves dense schedules of reinforcement that are decreased gradually (as cited in; Phillips, Iannaccone, Rooker, and Hagopian, 2017). The problem behavior may be replaced by an alternative behavior already existing in the individual repertoire, during NCR (Virues-Ortega, Iwata, Fahmie, and Harper, 2013). The American Psychological Association’s Division 12 criteria for empirically supported treatments established NCR and extinctions as an effective treatment for problem behavior (Chambless & Hollon, 1998). When the schedules of NCR are dense there is a reduction of the Motivating operation (MO) for problem behavior (as cited in; Phillips, Iannaccone, Rooker, and Hagopian, 2017). NCR is more effective when the same reinforcement maintaining the behavior (functional reinforcement) is used in the contingency instead of an alternative reinforcement (as cited in Phillips,iannaccone, Rooker, & Hagopian, 2017). Thus, the same reinforcement responsible for maintaining problem behavior should be used in an NCR contingency (Vollmer et al. 1993). In a study by Phillips, Iannaccone, Rooker, & Hagopian (2017), Non-contingent
Among the most widely disseminated procedures derived directly from the principles of applied behavior analysis have been those applied to the analysis and treatment of common childhood problems (e.g., Arndorfer, Allen, & Aljazireh, 1999; Schroeder & Gordon, 1991; Watson & Gresham, 1998). Applied behavior analysts have developed a countless effective interventions for common childhood problems and have repeatedly demonstrated that, even in loosely controlled applied environments, behavior often responds rather quickly to properly managed contingencies. Yet, despite these successes, some have maintained that simply providing repeated demonstrations of the effectiveness of behavioral technology eventually will yield diminishing returns to the ﬁeld (Kunkel, 1987). The success of an intervention is dependent not only upon its effectiveness but also upon its precise delivery by a clinician and the consistency with which parents and staff implement that treatment with all of its essential
Its application to the treatment of mental problems is known as behaviour modification. Learning is seen as behaviour change moulded by experience; it is accomplished largely through either classical or operant conditioning.
Behavior therapy involves reinforcing desired behaviors through rewards and praise and decreasing problem behaviors by setting limits and consequences.(Chris A. Zeigler Dendy, 2006) For example, one intervention might be that a teacher rewards a child who has ADHD for taking small steps toward raising a hand before talking in class, even if the child still blurts out a comment.(Chris A. Zeigler Dendy, 2006) The theory is that rewarding the struggle toward change encourages new behavior. This may also involve creating a routine for the child, making goals for the child to achieve. This may help with some children but not all. In dealing with this kind of therapy, the child may not be getting the kind of help needed to control themselves at school or in other public situations. However therapy has been proven to work best if it is accompanied by a pharmaceutical treatment and they work
Scientific evidence serves another purpose in behavior analysis. It guides the decision in the types of treatment procedures that are selected for implementation. According to Van Houten, et al. (1988), a behavior analyst has an obligation to only use methods that have been scientifically proven to be effective. This fact is key because one of the rights a client has is the right to the most effective treatments available. When the behavior analyst is able to combine the use of the scientific data and the use of scientifically proven effective treatments, they are able to accomplish the goal that they should start with for each client. A behavior analyst has been most effective in helping their clients when they are able to withdrawal themselves from the clients life altogether (Skinner, 1978).
-When patients are not ready for behavior changes, this method of teaching can induce feelings that may make one become compliant in making the changes necessary.
Behavioural activation is one of the alternative treatments being used to help those in minority and lower socioeconomic groups. It allows for a flexible plan based on the unique needs of each individual with the goal of disrupting negative behavior patterns and replacing them with healthy coping
This paper will explore two alternative methods of behavioral therapies that do not involve PE and evaluate each treatment plan in terms of methodology and success rates.
One of the greatest appeals to behavior therapy is its efficacy in treating a wide array of disorders and its innovative applications outside of individual psychotherapy. In the past century, behavior therapy has made increasingly effective and creative therapies to treat patients with maladaptive behaviors which were previously, in some cases, untreatable. With such developments, patients were able to not only treat pathologies, but also improve functioning in a variety of aspects of their lives as well as the lives of those close to them. Amongst the most widely implemented treatments in behavior therapy are token economies, contingency contracts, and behavioral parent training. These therapies proved to be greatly useful when they were
When using behavioral modification techniques you must spend a lot of one-on-one time with the individual; it takes time, patience, and commitment. People often invest too little and expect too much. If you are helping or supporting an individual who’s going through behavioral modification you will need to help them make a plan that they will stick to and make sure they start with small changes. By having small goals “you’ll feel successful knowing you met your goal” (Behavior Modification Takes Time, Patience, and Commitment). Being a supporter of an individual trying to change a behavior can be a stressful on you as they person trying to change.
The first important parts of developing a behavior modification program is to describe the person’s behavior. This is important in order to understand the behavior that needs to be changed (Kuhlenschmidt, n.d.). For instance, if the unreasonable bad behavior that needs to be changed, the frequency and time of its usual occurrence need to be determined. The aspects that may possibly trigger that bad behavior must also be acknowledged. The next important part is to decide that behavioral change is needed. Making a decision to take the behavior modification program requires a strong level of commitment (Kuhlenschmidt, n.d.). Otherwise, developing the program will make no sense. Another important part of the process is the identification of potential intervention strategies. Depending on the type of target behavior, these strategies may range from positive or negative
Behavioral therapies are based on the theory of classical conditioning. The premise is that all behavior is learned; faulty learning (i.e. conditioning) is the cause of abnormal behavior. Therefore the individual has to learn the correct or acceptable behavior. An important feature of behavioral therapy is its focus on current problems and behavior, and on attempts to remove behavior the patient finds troublesome. This contrasts greatly with psychodynamic therapy (re: Freud), where the focus is much more on trying to uncover unresolved conflicts from childhood (i.e. the cause of abnormal behavior). Examples of behavior therapy include: Systematic DesensitizationAversion TherapyFloodingThe theory of classical conditioning suggests a response is learned and repeated through immediate association. behavioral therapies based on classical conditioning aim to break the association between stimulus and undesired response (e.g. phobia, additional etc.). Behavioural therapy is focused on human behaviour and looks to eradicate unwanted or maladaptive behaviour. Typically this type of therapy is used for those with behavioural problems or mental health conditions that involve unwanted
Behavior Modification, a psychological theory of human behavior. It evolved from the application of experimentally derived principles of learning to the modification of problem behaviors. The theory is based on a psychological model of human behavior that rejects the psychoanalytic or quasi-disease model of mental illness. Approaches to behavior modification assume that abnormal behavior is acquired and maintained in the same manner as normal behavior and can be changed directly through the application of social-learning principles. Assessment procedures focus on describing how an individual behaves, thinks, and feels in specific situations. Treatment methods are derived from the theories and findings of