If some research is undertaken that provides evidence that capital markets do not always behave in accordance with the Efficient Market Hypothesis, does this invalidate research that adopts an assumption that capital markets are efficient?
a) The bank unveiled a plan to tackle community concerns so that it would be seen in a more positive light. Because banks offer services which are so essential (providing an opportunity to exploit customers), they deal with high levels of customers and generally make large profits. Also, interest rates naturally fluctuate between high and low levels (controlled by the government to manage inflation - not the individual banks). For these reasons they have developed a generally bad reputation with the public (exacerbated by Credit Union advertisements etc). By making this voluntary disclosure to the public, ANZ is trying to "win over" customers by showing their concerns for the community. This is an example of Positive Accounting Theory
California Surf Clothing Company issues 1,300 shares of $7 par value common stock at $22 per share. Later in the year, the company decides to repurchase 130 shares at a cost of $35 per share.
3. What was the balance of Walmart’s allowance for doubtful accounts (ADA) as of January 31, 2012?
One of the most important factors is reliability of financial statements. Reliability is further ensured by audit of financial statements. At last but not least, financial statements should be made in a comparable format either with previous periods or with the competitors.
Representations are faithful if there is a correspondence or agreement between the accounting measures or descriptions in the financial reports and the economic phenomena they purport to represent (FASB, 1980: 6; FASB, 2005: 3). The difference between reliability and a faithful representation is ambiguous. Since the attributes neutrality, completeness and substance of economic phenomena (substance over form) can be classified as qualities of faithful representation, reliability becomes redundant. Consequently, a point of attention is to discuss what exactly the notions reliability and faithful representation mean and what they do not mean (FASB, 2005: 2-3).In both frameworks neutrality is defined as free from bias. 'To that end, the common conceptual framework should not include conservatism or prudence among the desirable qualitative characteristics of accounting information. However the framework should note the continuing need to be careful in the face of uncertainty' (FASB, 2005: 3).
Alberta Mining Company extracts and processes a variety of ores and minerals. One of its operations is coal -cleaning plant that produces toxic wastes. For many years, the wastes have been properly disposed of though Canadian Disposal, an experienced company. However, disposal of the toxic wastes is becoming an economic hardship because increasing government regulations caused the cost of such disposal to quadruple in the list 6 years.
Reliability refers to information the user can depend upon to be materially accurate and to faithfully represent the information that
Case 10-7 Impaired Abilities Scenario A On March 31, 2010, at the end of its first quarter, Company A owned a portfolio of investment-grade, fixed-rate debt securities classified as available for sale. Because of interest rate increases that occurred between the date that certain securities were acquired and March 31, 2010, a material portion of the portfolio was “underwater.” Company A evaluated this decline in fair value to determine whether it is other than temporary and concluded that the decline is temporary. Company A provided the auditors with a brief memo documenting its conclusion as of the period end as follows: M EM O R AN D U M
Accounting is the language of business; the operating budget is the company play book for the coming year. With the operating budget the company can forecast the overall health of the enterprise. Management is able to foresee the financial strength of the company based on the sales revenue, Cost of Goods Sold (COGS), the operation expense that then provides the budgeted income statement. Although good management is required to ensure a company’s fiscal health, the operation budget if well planned is the actual path that will ensure success.
The major reason for why people invest in companies and purchase stocks is to generate profits. Stocks can be a very tricky and lucrative way to make money, and in order to potentially make a return on your investments investors need to look at the information that they have available to them and make a decision. Here now are types of information needed so that an investor to make a safe and comfortable decision.
It has been become an issue of great concern that the accounting profession must find a common theory in order to address and put the issue at rest. This therefore, has called for the study of this topic under review “the demand for and supply of accounting theories: the market for excuses. As a result of this several questions have been raised. For instance, the question of why accounting theories are predominantly normative has been put forward by this article? Secondly, why no single theory in accounting profession that is generally or widely accepted? It has been argued that the financial accounting theories have been found to be ineffective most especially in the area of impacting accounting practice and policy, though, this has been