After the trial ran for 10 minutes, we measured the distance travelled by the solutes and the distance travelled by the solvent. The distance the solvent travelled was 5.3 cm. The unknown solute travelled 4.1 cm, the Vis-a-Vis solute travelled 4.9 cm, the sharpie solute travelled 5.4 cm, and the Just Basic solute travelled 5.3 cm. By dividing the distanced travelled by the solute by the distance travelled by solvent we calculated the Rf value for each pen type. The unknown had an Rf value of 0.77, the Vis-a-Vis had an Rf value of 0.92, the Sharpie had an Rf value of 1.0, and the Just Basic marker had an Rf value of
The origins of tea are rooted in China (Food Timeline). According to legend, the beneficial properties of tea were first discovered by the Emperor Shen Nung in the year 2737 B.C. He drank only boiled water for hygienic purposes, and one day while he drank a breeze rustled the branches of a tree and a few leaves fell into his cup. Creating the first cup of tea. It is challenging to know whether or not the emperor was real or just a part of the spiritual and cultural development of ancient China. China was not unified as an empire until the third century, so it is unlikely emperors existed back then. One thing that is known is that tea was popular in China thousands of years ago. The first written reference of tea is in the third century B.C. A famous surgeon recommended the beverage to patients to increase concentration and alertness. Tea was first written as “tu” in ancient texts. This caused a good deal of confusion because the same Chinese character was used for both tea and Chinese sow thistles. Between 206 B.C. and A.D. 220 a Han Dynasty emperor ruled that when referring to tea, the characters should be pronounced as “cha”. From here on, tracing tea’s history became easier because tea acquired its own individual character (Food Timeline).
1. The 1% saltwater solution was easy to create, however there was a greater amount of this solution than the alcohol. The saltwater solution worked better and had more effect on each of the colors on the strip of paper than the alcohol solution because the colors began
Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) works in relation to the polarity of chemicals. A plate is first covered with aluminum foil or silica etc. and has solutions of varying polarities placed upon the aluminum foil or silica. When placed in a in a puddle of solvent that moves up the plate, the different inks i.e. the solution will move up the place based on their Rf values. Adherence increases with increasing polarity, so the less polar compounds will be carried farther by the solvent. Eventually the dyes will separate into their compontnets, which can be visibly seen. This is then used to determine who the ink of the unsigned note belonged to along with the pen that it belonged
I believe that this is a result of our ink coming in contact with other substances, and the inks are still the same because the colors were the same. Lastly, we made observations about both inks, such as color and odor. Both has a dark purple color and did not have a particular odor. The next substance we tested were the boiling chips. We found the density, color, odor, and effect on boiling water to identify this substance.
An “ancient legend in China, is that tea was discovered accidentally by the Emperor Shen Nong in 2737 B.C.E.” According to the website, www.mightyleaf.com “The emperor was boiling water under a tree and leaves fell into the pot,” and thus the legend of how drinking tea started. According to historical documents, China is the first culture to drink tea or to utilize it in religious or cultural ceremonies. The practice of sharing tea began among family members, neighbors, and friends as a social interaction. In an early Chinese dynasty, the Emperor Song Huizong wrote about the “problems that can degrade the flavor, such as using an inferior product or improperly processed leaf.” (Hinsch 77) Even poems penned in China discussed the growing and drinking of tea.
Pigments extracted from different greens have different polarities and may be different colors. Mixed pigments can be separated using chromatography paper. Chromatography paper is able to separate mixed pigments due to their polarity and solubility. Pigments of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and beta carotene will be separated on chromatography paper because each has its own polarity and solubility, which results in different distance traveled up the paper. Beta carotene is non-polar so it travels the highest distance, followed by chlorophyll a. Chlorophyll b is the most polar; therefore, it travels the shortest distance. The separated pigments on the chromatography paper can be eluted in acetone and absorbance spectrum is
The next step was to place the strip of chromatography paper on a paper towel. Then dip a capillary tube into the plant pigment extract (spinach pigment extract) provided by the teacher. The tube will fill on its own. We applied the extract to the pencil line on the paper, blew the strip dry, and repeated it three to four times until the line on the paper is a dark
Chen Zongmao’s book supports the whole view of my research paper. It introduces the development of tea in different historic stages, and especially focuses on the culture of tea in different time. Moreover, it states Chinese tea from all the aspects such as tea’s category, how to drink tea, how to plant etc. This book is like a tea Encyclopedia that le